The wine typicality is dependent on terroir, influenced by climate, soil and human management, in the field as well as in the winery. Cabernet Sauvignon is the most known grape cultivar to elaborate red wines. The use of selected yeasts in winemaking is a security for enologists to make a quick, uniform and effective fermentation of the grape must. However, some wineries prefer using local yeasts to valorize the wine produced, since natural microbiota found in specific vineyards can confer typicality to the wine. The main objective of this study was to compare the characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon red wines from the Serra Gaúcha-Brazil, elaborated with different yeasts, over two consecutive vintages (2020 and 2021). Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae autochthonous strains called BRM 25640 and BRM 4687 (isolated and selected by Embrapa from the Serra Gaúcha winegrowing area) and two commercial strains (X60 and AWRI 796) were used in triplicate. The fermentation process was undertaken at 25±2 °C for 6 days (alcoholic fermentation), then at 18±2 °C for 30 days (malolactic fermentation). After a cold stabilization (0±2 °C) for 30 days, wines were bottled and analyzed 30 days later. The classical physicochemical analyses revealed few differences. Strong variations were observed with respect to the metabolic activity of the strains, showing differences for metabolic compounds. Wines made with autochthonous strains presented the highest amounts of monomeric anthocyanins and some flavonols, while wines elaborated with commercial yeasts presented the highest amounts of some tannins in both vintages. The aromatic profile presented significant differences only in 2021 vintage. These results suggest that, as yeast strains influenced the wine enological profiles, descriptors linked to typicality can be traced down to local microbiota factors.
Authors: Giuliano Elias Pereira1, Juliane Barreto de Oliveira2, Leonardo Cerutti3, Leonardo Silva Campos3, Carolina Ragoni Maniero3, Gildo Almeida da Silva1, Bruna Carla Agustini1, Celso Guarani Ruiz de Oliveira1 and Jorge Ricardo Ducati4
1Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation – Embrapa Grape & Wine, Bento Gonçalves-RS, Brazil
2Embrapa Grape & Wine/CNPq, Bento Gonçalves-RS, Brazil
3Embrapa Grape & Wine, Bento Gonçalves-RS, Brazil
4Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul-UFRGS, Porto Alegre-RS, Brazil
Keywords: Vitis vinifera L., grape, red wines, UPLC-MS, metabolic profile