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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 Category: GiESCO 2023

Proceedings of GiESCO 2023

The 22nd GIESCO meeting is held by Cornell University in Ithaca, NY, July 17-21, 2023.

Giesco 2023 – View all

GiESCOGiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesSessions 1, 2 and 3: Adaptation to climate change

Uncovering the effectiveness of vineyard techniques used to delay ripening through meta-analysis

One of the most concerning trends associated with increasing heat and water stress is advanced ripening of grapes, which leads to harvesting fruit at higher sugar concentrations but lacking optimal phenolic (i.e. color and mouthfeel) and aromatic maturity. Mitigation techniques for this phenomenon have been studied for many years and practices to delay sugar accumulation have been identified, including antitranspirants, delayed pruning and late-source-limitation techniques. Evaluation of the efficacy of these vineyard practices has occurred across a wide range of environments, vintages, varieties and growing conditions. To assess the broader efficacy of these three vineyard practices, which are easy-to-implement and cost-effective, a meta-analytic approach was adopted using data retrieved from 43 original studies.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesPoster session - Sustainable viticulture

Towards microbiota-based disease management: analysis of grapevine microbiota in plots with contrasted levels of downy mildew infection

Vineyards harbor a myriad of microorganisms that interact with each other and with the grapevines. Some microorganisms are plant pathogens, such as the oomycete Plasmopara viticola that causes grapevine downy mildew. Others, such as plant growth promoting bacteria and disease biocontrol agents, have a positive influence on vine health. The present study aims to (1) investigate whether vine-based culture media increase the cultivability of the grapevine microbiota, in comparison to standard culture media and (2) identify and isolate bacterial taxa naturally present in grapevine leaves and significantly more abundant in plots showing low susceptibility to downy mildew.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesPoster session – Vine and soil management innovations

Impact of soil-applied and foliar-applied nitrogen on grape and wine composition

Foliar application of urea may be an efficient way to alter grape and wine composition without increasing vine vigor. However, we know little about the impact of this practice on phenolic compounds and yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN). Adequate YAN is required for an efficient and complete fermentation, while phenolics are particularly important for the sensory profile of red wines. The goal of this study is to test the impact of foliar urea application at veraison, compared to the traditional soil-applied nitrogen fertilization early in the season, on Syrah berry and wine composition in field conditions.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesPoster session – Vine and soil management innovations

Relative impact of crop size and leaf removal on aromatic compounds and phenolic acids of Istrian Malvasia wine

Although several studies investigated the impact of crop size or fruit zone microclimate on aromatic or phenolic composition of wines, the effects of these two practices were not assessed and compared in the same study through a technological experiment within the same vineyard. Therefore, their relative effectiveness is hard to compare, which in turn is essential for providing producers with valuable information as a basis to choose adequate approach in yield and canopy management. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of two crop sizes and two different fruit zone microclimate conditions obtained by leaf removal in a two-factorial experiment, in order to assess and compare their relative impact on Istrian Malvasia (Vitis vinifera L.) white wine aroma and phenolic composition.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesPoster session – Vine and soil management innovations

Comparing different vineyard sampling densities and patterns for spatial interpolation of intrinsic water use efficiency

The need to rationalize agricultural inputs has recently increased interest in assessing vineyard variability in order to implement variable rate input applications, so-called ‘precision viticulture’. In many viticultural areas globally, precision viticulture is already widely used such as for selective harvesting and variable rate application (VRA) of inputs such as irrigation and/or fertilizer. Robust VRA relies on having a geostatistically accurate map (of one or more vineyard attributes) requiring high sampling densities, which can be cost- and time-prohibitive to obtain. Previous work on spatial interpolation using kriging have upscaled ground-based measurements, but such upscaling strategies are applicable only when vineyard conditions are spatially continuous and satisfies the assumption of second-order stationary processes. Alternatively, mixed models that combine kriging and auxiliary information, such as the regression kriging (RK) method, are more instructive for spatial predictions. In order to improve prediction accuracies, it is therefore necessary to incorporate additional information to achieve accurate spatial patterns with low error.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesPoster session – Vine and soil management innovations

Biomass carbon and nitrogen input from cover crops in an irrigated vineyard in Okanagan Valley, Canada

The use of cover crops in vineyards has been encouraged by positive effects on wine grape yield and sensory attributes, and improved soil function. This study examined the efficacy of three alleyway and three undervine cover crop treatments in an organic vineyard in the semiarid Okanagan Valley, Canada in 2021.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesPoster session – Vine and soil management innovations

Grapevine nitrogen status: correlation between chlorophyll indices n-tester and spadGrapevine nitrogen status

Knowledge of the nitrogen nutrition status of grapevines is essential for the sustainable management of their nutrition for the production of quality grapes. The measurement of the chlorophyll index is a rapid, non-destructive and relatively inexpensive method that provides a good approximation of the nitrogen nutrition status of the vine during the season. Interpretation thresholds are currently insufficient or non-existent for some chlorophyll meters. Ideally, they should be available for each variety and each phenological stage. In order to popularize the use of chlorophyll-meters, measurements were carried out at Agroscope in Switzerland to establish the correlation between the indices obtained by the devices N-tester and SPAD 502.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesPoster session – Vine and soil management innovations

Rootstock effects on cv. Ugni blanc berry and wine composition

In the Cognac region in France, Ugni blanc is the most planted grape variety (98% of the 80 500 ha). This vine region is in expansion due to the success of the associated well-known brandy and the need of high grape yield to guarrantee the production of base wine for distillation. About 2 to 3000 ha are newly planted each year and rootstocks are one powerfull tool for vineyard adaptation to soil or climate change. As rootstocks ensure water and mineral nutrient supplies to the scion, it is important to better understand their effect on berry compostionnal parameters such as sugars and nitrogen compounds, which are the main precursors for fermentary aroma metabolites, the latter being quality markers for Cognac after distillation.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesPoster session – Vine and soil management innovations

Riesling as a model to irrigate white wine grape varieties in arid climates

Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is a common viticultural practice for wine grape production. In addition to the potential improvement of water use efficiency, the adoption of this technique favors smaller canopies with higher levels of fruit sun exposure, enhancing quality attributes associated with red wine grapes such as smaller berries with higher tannins and anthocyanins. However, these quality attributes do not necessarily transfer to white wine grapes. The goal of this project was to assess whether partial rootzone drying (PRD) is more suited than RDI to grow high-end white wine grapes in arid climates, especially aromatic varieties, using Riesling as a model.

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GiESCOGiESCO 2023IVES Conference SeriesPoster session – Vine and soil management innovations

Under-vine cover crops as a management tool for irrigated Mediterranean vineyards: agronomic implications and changes in soil physical and biological properties 

Cover crops are increasingly considered in Mediterranean climate vineyards due to a combination of agronomic and regulatory considerations. However, the soil under the vines themselves is typically kept free of vegetation by mechanical plowing or herbicide spraying. Taking into account that these practices may convey a number of non-favourable economic and environmental implications, and the fact that drip irrigation can ease the use of cover crops under the vines, the aim of this work was to evaluate the agronomic implications and the changes in soil physical and biological properties caused by an under-vine cover crop in a Mediterranean area.

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