GiESCO

IVES 9 Tag: GiESCO

Georgian vitis germplasm: conservation, research and usage

Grapevine Vitis vinifera L. is a leader perennial crops for the Republic of Georgia, the South Caucasus. This is a region where the first wine making practice was initiated 8.000 years ago (McGovern et al. 2017) and a spot of grape domestication. The country of Georgia holds 525 local and more than 60 breeding varieties – they are preserved in 9 field collections inside the country.The list of recommended wine cultivars contains 34 names, including 27 old autochthonous varieties and covering 94% of the country’s vineyards.

read more

“Silex vitioeno module porte-greffe”: an information system to gather experimental results on grapevine rootstocks

Maintaining stable yields and quality over time is a major challenge for the wine industry. Within the context of climate change, the choice of the rootstock is an important lever for adapting to current and future climatic conditions. Within a vineyard, the choice of the rootstock depends on the environmental conditions, the scion variety and the objectives of production. Many experimental data on the performances of rootstock already exist and can guide our decision-making.

read more

Hydraulic redistribution and water movement mechanisms in grapevines

Plants have been shown to redistribute water between root sections and soil layers along a gradient of decreasing water availability. One benefit of this hydraulic redistribution is that water can be transported from roots in wet soil to others in dry soil, delaying the onset of water stress and increasing root longevity in dry environments. Grapevines are thought to redistribute water laterally across the trunk from wet to dry portions of the root system. However, it is unknown whether the phloem contributes to such water redistribution.

read more

Anthocyanin and trans-resveratrol accumulation is associated with abscisic acid and methyl jasmonicanthocyanin and trans-resveratrol accumulation is acid in berry skin of vitis vinifera L. Cvs. Malbec, Bonarda, Syrah, Cabernet sauvignon, and Pinot noir

Red grapes contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds, known to contribute to wine quality and to provide important health benefits. Berry skin phenolics can be elicited by plant hormones. The aim of this work was to increase the content of anthocyanins and trans-resveratrol in five red varieties cultured in Argentina: Malbec (M), Bonarda (B), Syrah (S), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS), and Pinot Noir (PN), in two different growing regions: Santa Rosa (SR) and Valle de Uco (VU), by applying a post-veraison hormonal treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA).

read more

From plant water status to wine flavonoid composition: a precision viticulture approach in a Sonoma county vineyard

Plant water status of grapevine plays a critical role in affecting berry and final wine chemical composition. The environmental variabilities existing in vineyard system have significant impacts on plant water status, but it is challenging to individualize environmental factors from the temporal and spatial variabilities in vineyard. Therefore, there is need to monitor the ecophysical variation through utilizing precision viticulture tools in order to minimize the separation in berry composition. This study aims at delineating vineyard into different management zones based on plant water status explained by soil texture, and utilize differential harvest to equilibrate the final berry and wine composition.

read more

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

read more

Conversion to mechanical management in vineyards maintains fruit

Current environmental, ecological and economic issues require a better vineyard production management. In fact, a poor use of fertilizing could lead to harmful impact on environment. Another issue concerns the cultures themselves which couldn’t use fertilizers efficiently, leading to a loss of income or too much expense for farmers. Presently, estimation of fertilization’s needs is realized by the laboratory analysis of leaves selected through a random sampling. The present study aims at optimizing fertilization’s management by using a map of biophysical parameters estimated from satellite images.

read more

Survey assessing different practices for mechanical winter pruning in Southern France vineyards

Winter pruning is today the longest operation for hand workers in the vineyard. Over the last years, mechanical pruning practices have become popular in southern France vineyards to respond to competitiveness issue especially for the basic and mid-range wine production. Wine farmers have developed different vineyard management techniques associated with mechanical winter pruning. They sought to be precise or not to control the buds number per vine.

read more

Characterization of simple polyphenols in seeds of autochthonous grapevine varieties grown in Croatia (Vitis vinifera L.)

Croatia has rich grapevine genetic resources with more than 125 autochthonous varieties preserved. Coastal region of Croatia, Dalmatia, is well known for wine production based on autochthonous grapevine varieties. Nevertheless, only couple of these are widely cultivated and have greater economic importance. Grape seeds are sources of polyphenols which play an important role in organoleptic and nutritional value of grape and wine. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the simple polyphenols from grape seeds in 20 rare autochthonous grapevine varieties.

read more

Investigation on Valbelluna area and its oenological potentiality: case study on Prosecco DOC

Valbelluna valley is an area located in the northeastern Italy. It is extended from the East-West between Feltre and Belluno, along the Piave waterway and enclosed between Cansiglio valley on the South and the Dolomites in the North. Here, the villages of Limana and Trichiana are present, which are considered for decades potentially interesting areas to aim a niche production with own particular properties.The position of this area, its sun exposition, its soil composition and the microclimate, are ideal factors to obtain vines and consequently wines with unique features especially regarding the diversity and complexity aroma.

read more

Assessing macro-elements contents in vine leaves and grape berries of Vitis vinifera using near-infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics

The cultivated vine (Vitis vinifera) is the main species cultivated in the world to make wine. In 2017, the world wine market represents 29 billion euros in exports, and France contributes 8.2 billion (28%) to this trade, making it a traditional market of strategic importance. Viticulture is therefore a key sector of the French agricultural economy. It is in this context that the nutritional diagnosis of the vine is of real strategic interest to winegrowers. Indeed, the fertilization of the vine is a tool for the winegrower that allows him to influence and regulate the quality of the wine.

read more

Using remotely sensed (UAV) and in situ field measurements to describe grapevine canopy characteristics

Row orientation and canopy management are essential for high quality grapevine production. Microclimatic conditions of the leaves and fruits can be influenced by the canopy geometry. Remote sensing is a very promising tool to describe vegetative growth and physiological behavior of vineyards. However, the correlation between remotely sensed data and in situ field measurements has been described scarcely in the scientific literature so far. The aim of the study was to correlate remotely sensed data obtained with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with in situ field measurements to describe canopy structure.

read more

Impact of changing climatic factors on physiological and vegetative growth

Scientific information on grapevine response to predicted levels of climate parameters is scarce and not sufficient to properly position the Wine Industry for the future. It is critical that the combined effects of increased temperature and CO2 on grapevines should be examined, without omitting the important link to soil water conditions. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of envisioned changes in climatic parameters on the functioning and growth of young grafted grapevines under controlled conditions, simulating expected future climate changes. Scientific knowledge of precisely how the newly-planted grapevine will react morphologically, anatomically and physiologically (at leaf, root and whole plant level) to the expected changes in important climatic parameters will enable producers to make better-informed decisions regarding terroir, cultivar and rootstock choices as well as the adaptation of current cultivation practices.

read more

Tolerance to sunburn: a variable to consider in the context of climate change

Climate change effects on grapevine phenology and grape primary and secondary metabolites are well described in recent literature. Increasing frequency and intensity of heat waves may be responsible for important yield losses in the future. However, the impact of this event is not so well described in literature. The present study highlights the importance of grape variety tolerance as a mitigation tool to climate change.

read more

The impact of decadal cold waves over Europe on future viticultural practices

A crucial issue associated with the long-term impact of climate change in viticulture concerns the capacity of resilience of the typical varieties currently cultivated in traditional areas. Indeed, regions that are currently characterized by optimal climatic conditions can cease to be so in the future. At the same time, new premium wine production regions may arise north of 50oN. Both these threats and opportunities are based on the assessment of a very likely gradual temperature increase along the 21st century, resulting from the ensemble mean of the state-of-the-art climate projections. Such an assessment is orienting decision-makers and stakeholders to rethink the grapevine cultivation zoning, prefiguring, for each variety, a shift at higher latitudes and/or at higher altitudes areas.

read more

Temperature variability assessment at vineyard scale: control of data accuracy and data processing protocol

Climatic variability studies at fine scale have been developed in recent years with the reduction of material cost and the development of competitive miniaturized sensors. This work is forming part the LIFE-ADVICLIM project, of which one of the objectives is to model spatial temperature variability at vineyard scale. In the Bordeaux pilot site, a large network of data loggers has been set up to record temperature close to the vine canopy. The reduced distance between plant foliage and measurement equipment raises specific issues and leads to an increased rate of outliers compared to data retrieved from classical weather stations. Some of these were detected during data analysis, but others could not be easily identified. The present study aims to address the issue of data quality control and provide recommendations for data processing in climatic studies at fine scale.

read more

An intra-block study of bunch zone air temperature and its impact on berry and wine attributes

Temperature is a key environmental factor affecting grape primary and secondary metabolites. Even if several mesoscale studies have already been conducted on temperature
especially within a Protected Designation of Origin area, few data are available at an intra-block scale. The present study aimed at i) assessing the variability in bunch zone air temperature within a single vineyard block and the temporal stability of temperature spatial patterns, ii) understanding temperature drivers and
iii) identifying the impact of temperature on grape berry attributes.

read more

Influence of climate change conditions (elevated CO2 and temperature) on the grape composition of five tempranillo (Vitis vinifera L.) Somatic variants

The current levels of greenhouse gas emissions are expecting to provoke a change on the environmental conditions which, among others, will include a rise of global mean surface temperature and an increment of atmospheric CO2 levels (IPCC, 2014), known as climate change. The response of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), one of the most important crops in Europe, from both a cultural and economic point of view, is not completely understood yet and the studies considering the interaction between factors are scarce. Besides, the potential variety of responses among somatic variants needs to be studied in order to be exploited in the avoidance of undesired traits linked to climate change (Carbonell‐Bejerano et al., 2015).

read more