Terroir Congress 2012

Ancient and recent construction of Terroirs

Ancient and recent construction of Terroirs

The local wine as an area identified and recognized is a complex socio-historical reality that calls an effort of observation and theoretical reflection using various social sciences that address training and development of human activities rooted in the territories.The notion of terroir now holds both the front stage of the ...
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Towards a spatial analysis of antique viticultural areas: the case study of Amos (Turkey) and some other places

Interpretation of ancient texts, such as the Amos epigraphic farming leases, questions both locations and spatial extents of the viticultural area, as well as soils, landscapes, cropping methods and the quality of grapes in the antique Greece. These issues may be partially answered undertaking spatial analysis of soils and landscape ...
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Historical reconquest of hillslopes by the “Vins des Abymes” after the collapse of Mont Granier in 1248 (Savoie, France)

The vineyards extending between the hillslopes of ‘Apremont’ and ‘Les Marches’ that dominate the valley of Chambéry (Savoie, French Alps) define the terroir of the ‘Vins des Abymes’. The particularity of this terroir is directly related to the chaotic morphology of the hillslopes formed by one of the largest landslides ...
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Kimmeridgian age in Chablis: a geological argument for the social building of a terroir

Situated at the beginning of the 20th century on the territory of the Chablis municipality, delimited according to specialists of the time to plots of “kimmeridgian” origin, the vineyard producing Chablis wines has considerably extended as a result of challenges and internal conflicts. The reference to the Kimmeridgian age progressively ...
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The Pampa and the vineyard: gaucho´s natural and symbolic aspects in the identity´s constitution of “Vinhos da Campanha”’s terroir – RS/Brasil

The wine region of “Vinhos da Campanha” is located in southern Brazil, on the Uruguay borderline. The colonization’s process in the region was characterized by territorial disputes between Portuguese and Spanish people during the nineteenth century. From this miscegenation, ethnic influenced by Castilian, Portuguese and local Indians, is constituted a ...
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Legal protection of the vitivinicultural terroirs in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan

This study analyses the actual situation regarding the legal protection of the vitivinicultural terroirs in Yamanashi Prefecture, the centre of Japanese wine industry with more than 150 years of wine-making tradition. Wines produced with grapes harvested in Yamanashi are identified by its sub-region, village and parcel. Such practice of geographical ...
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Typology of Terroirs around the World

Typology of Terroirs around the world

It seems implausible that the geographical development of the vineyards could have been affected by a shift in the positions of the Earth’continents that started 250 million years ago. At one end of the geological timescale there are landscapes shaped by men, at the other, there are monumental upheavals so ...
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Climatic groups in Ibero-America viticulture compared to worldwide wine producer regions

The wine production is an important activity in many Ibero-American countries. The wine producer regions of these countries configure a large use of different climate types and viticultural climates. In a vitivinicultural zoning project of CYTED (Ibero-American Program for Science, Technology and Development), a viticultural climatic characterization was done in ...
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Aromatic stability of Syrah and Petit Verdot tropical wines from Brazil

The production of fine wines in the Sub-middle of the São Francisco River Valley, Northeast of Brazil, is relatively recent, about twenty-five years ago. This region presents different characteristics, with a tropical semiarid climate, in a flat landscape. Presenting high annual average temperature, solar radiation and water in abundance for ...
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Using multifactorial analysis to evaluate the contribution of terroir components to the oenological potential of grapes at harvest

The oenological potential of grapes at harvest depends on a combination of the major components of Terroir: the climate, the soil, the plant material, the training system and the crop management. They control the type of product that can be developed, providing adapted winemaking techniques.Due to the high variability of ...
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Zoning mountain landscapes for a valorisation of high identity products

Mountain agriculture is made difficult by the geomorphological complexity of the territory. This is especially true for viticulture: over the centuries the work of men in such a difficult environment has produced unique, and valuable landscapes. Whereas some of these mountain viticultural sites have earned a place in the World ...
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High resolution climate spatial analysis of European winegrowing regions

Climate strongly affects the geographical distribution of grape varieties, grapevine cultivation techniques and wine organoleptic properties. The current study aims at comparing the climatic features of European winegrowing regions. A geodatabase of 260 wine producing areas within 18 countries of the European Community was first established by means of maps ...
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Grapegrowing climates

Spatial Analysis of Climate in Winegrape Growing Regions in Portugal

Spatial climate data at a 1 km resolution has allowed for a comprehensive mapping and assessment of viticulture DOs regions in Portugal. Overall the 50 regions and sub-regions in Portugal range from just over 1200 GDD in the Vinho Verde to just over 2300 GDD in Alentejo with 34% of ...
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The complex response of Mediterranean viticultural systems to climate change: a case study from France and Australia

Climate change could put at risk viticultural areas situated at the hotter margins of Vitis vinifera growth climatic range. We focus on two such regions with a Mediterranean climate (CSb type in Köppen classification): Côtes-du-Roussillon in southern France and McLaren Vale in South Australia. They share a relatively similar recent ...
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Impact of microclimate on berry quality parameters of white Riesling (Vitis vinifera L.)

Knowledge has been accumulated on the impact of microclimate, in particular berry temperature and irradiation, for a wide range of red varieties. However, little research has been dedicated on the effects of the same factors on the quality of white grape varieties. In this study we present results of the ...
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ECA&D: A high-resolution dataset for monitoring climate change and effects on viticulture in Europe

Climate change will lead to persistent changes in temperature and precipitation patterns which will affect the characteristics of wine produced in each region. The European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECA&D) is a web-based database and tool to monitor climate variability and trends over Europe. This tool is used in this ...
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Observation and modeling of climate at fine scales in wine-producing areas

Global change in climate affect regional climates and hold implications for viticulture worldwide. Despite numerous studies on the impact of projected global warming on different regions, global atmospheric models are not adapted to local scales and impacts at fine scales are still approximate. Although real progress in downscaling, using meso-scale ...
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Grapegrowing soils

Grapegrowing soils

The soil plays a key role in viticulture since it defines the planting depth, development and aeration of the root system and also controls the absorption of mineral elements and water conditions of the plant (1). Topography has been considered a determinant of the quality of wine from the Roman ...
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Soil chemistry as a measure of the distinctiveness of american viticultural areas of the Columbia basin, USA

The Columbia Basin, a semi-arid region centered in the eastern part of Washington State, is the second largest wine grape growing region in the United States and presently contains 10 American Viticultural Areas (AVAs). Eight of the Columbia Basin’s AVAs are smaller subdivisions (sub-AVAs) of the 46,100 km2 Columbia Valley ...
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Contribution of soil for tipifiyng wines in four geographical indications at Serra Gaúcha, Brazil

Brazil has a recent history on geographical indications and product regulation for high quality wines. The first geographic indication implemented was the Vale dos Vinhedos Indication of Procedence (IP), within the wine production zone named Serra Gaúcha, northeast of State Rio Grande do Sul. During the last decade, the Vale ...
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Mapping intra-plot topsoil diversity of Burgundy vineyards (Aloxe-Corton, France) from very high spatial resolution (VHSR) images

In this work, we present a method based on very high spatial resolution (VHSR) aerial images acquired in the visible domain and that map soil surface diversity at the hillslope scale with a spatial resolution of a few centimeters. This method combines aerial VHSR image classification with local soil sampling. ...
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Impact of organic inputs on soil biodiversity in vineyard systems. A monitoring approach during 20 years

Conventional vineyard practices have lead in many environmental disturbances as erosion, soil compaction, loss of organic matter and soil biodiversity, water contamination… Therefore, there is an increasing interest to develop sustainable viticulture in the famous Champagne vineyard for 20 years: a program called “VITI 2000” has been developed since 1986 ...
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Unexpected relationships between δ13C, water deficit, and wine grape performance

Water nutrition is crucial for wine grape performance. Thus soil investigation aims at characterizing spatial and temporal variability of available water. A possible strategy is to integrate monitoring and proxies of water availability. The carbon isotope ratio δ13C, measured in the alcohol of wine, is a promising tool to determine ...
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Grapevines and Terroirs

Varieties and rootstocks: an important mean for adaptation to terroir

A large genetic diversity exists among V. vinifera varieties, but also among cultivated rootstocks. This diversity is important to adapt plant material to different environmental conditions and contributes to the expression of terroir. Plasticity, i.e. the level of modification of the expression of individual characteristics of a genotype in different ...
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Conservation of intravarietal diversity in France: exhaustive overview and perspectives

Since the renewal of the French vineyard after the Phylloxera crisis, the panorama of cultivated varieties has dramatically changed. This current genetic erosion is due to the increasing interest in some cultivars that are widely spread out. Meanwhile, clonal selection has contributed to the development of these grape varieties driving ...
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Arsenic in soil, leaves, grapes and wines

The presence of arsenic in food and beverages creates concern because of the toxicity of this element, classified as carcinogenic in humans. The arsenic concentration in soil, vine leaves and berries (cv. Chardonnay) and white wines was studied, considering vineyards near to an old mining area (naturally rich in As), ...
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Terroir effects on the response of Tempranillo grapevines to irrigation in four locations of Spain: agronomic performance and water relations

We report the effects of different drip irrigation treatments on the agronomic performance and water relations of Tempranillo grapevines, pruned to a bilateral cordon, trained to VSP and under similar cultural practices, in four different locations of Spain, during the 2009-2011 seasons. In three locations (Requena, Badajoz and Valladolid) a ...
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Effects of rootstock and environment on the behaviour of autochthone grapevine varieties in the Douro region

In an experiment located at Quinta da Cavadinha, Sabrosa, Douro Region the behaviour of the varieties Touriga Nacional (TN), Tinta Barroca (TB), Touriga Franca (TF) and Tinta Roriz (TR), grafted onto the rootstocks Rupestris du Lot, R110, R99, 1103P and 196-17, was accessed over 11 years between 2001 and 2011. ...
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Influence of the vintage, clone and rootstock on the chemical characteristics of Syrah tropical wines from Brazil

In the Northeast of Brazil, vines can produce twice a year, because annual average temperature is 26ºC, with high solar radiation and water availability for irrigation. Many cultivars have been tested according to their adaptation to the climate and soil, and the main variety used for red wines is Syrah. ...
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Viticultural practices: past, present and future

Monitoring arthropods diversity in the “Costières de Nîmes” viticulture landscape

Biodiversity loss in agrosystems is partly due to landscape simplification (field enlargement, hedgerows removal…) that led to a loss of heterogeneity of the overall landscape. The aim of this study is to compare biodiversity of different habitats and landscape configurations in order to target strategic conservation actions and their locations ...
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Viticultural practices: past, present and future

Practices in viticulture have greatly evolved in the last five decades. There were three objectives: improvement in the quality of the products, reduction in the production costs through mechanization, and protection of the environment. In terms of soil management, the combination of different techniques such as soil tillage, chemical weeding ...
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Corvina and Corvinone grape berries grown in different areas and their aptitude to postharvest dehydration

The Valpolicella area (Veneto Region, Italy) is famous for its high quality wines: Amarone and Recioto, both obtained from partial post-harvest dehydrated red grapes. The main cultivars used for these wines are Corvina and Corvinone. In this region hundreds of years ago a particular wine making process was developed to ...
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Terroir effects on the response of Tempranillo grapevines to irrigation in four locations of Spain: grape and must composition

This work discusses the effects of soil and weather conditions on the grape composition of cv. Tempranillo in four different locations of Spain, during the 2008-2011 seasons. In all locations vines were pruned to a bilateral cordon, trained to VSP and under similar cultural practices. In three locations (Requena-east, Badajoz-west ...
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Soil electrical resistivity measurement: from terroir characterization to within-field crop inputs management

Soil Electrical Resistivity measurement is a zoning tool used by soil scientists and agronomists in viticulture. Indeed, the measure enables to optimize pedological surveys (position and number of soil sampling) to obtain a very precise final soil map. Since 2007, Tutiac Winegrowers (Vignerons de Tutiac, Bordeaux) have decided to map ...
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Precision viticulture: using on-board sensors to map vine variability and characterize vine trajectories

Precision viticulture consists in using ICT (Information and Communication Technology) to implement more specific and better targeted technical vine practices. With proxy-detection, precision viticulture mobilizes on-board sensors, computers, and GNSS positioning. Three sensors were embedded on a tractor and tested on a plot with three champagne grape varieties. This plot ...
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Soil and climate interactions with grapevines

Soil and Climate Interactions with Grapevines

To test the hypothesis that soil type plays a minor role relative to that of vine vigor in the determination of yield, fruit composition and wine sensory attributes, 5 Chardonnay vineyards in the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario were chosen for study. These vineyards were located on sites with heterogeneous soil ...
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Influence of pedoclimatic factors during berry ripening in Burgundy

Berry composition at ripeness can be explained by many factors. This study was carried out from 2004 through 2011 in a 60 block network in the Yonne region, Burgundy. The impact of the main components of terroir – vintage, soil, exposition, topography, varietal, rootstock, age, density and vine management- were ...
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Vine nitrogen status and the terroir effect: a study on cv. Doral in the Vaud vineyard (Switzerland)

A 3-year study was conducted in the Vaud vineyard (Switzerland) to evaluate the effects of « terroir » on the ecophysiology and fruit compostion of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Doral and the characteristics of the wine made therefrom. The impact of soil on the vine-fruit-wine continuum was evaluated at 13 ...
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Relationships between berry quality and climatic variability in grapevine cultivars from Piedmont

A major topic in viticultural research is the analysis of the relationships between climate on one side, and grape and wine quality on the other. It is well known that climatic conditions have a high impact on growth and development of grapevine and consequently on yield and quality. In particular, ...
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A general phenological model for characterising grape vine flowering and véraison

The timing of phenology is critical if grape quality potential is to be optimized. Phenological process based models are used to predict phenology. In this study, three different models were tested to predict flowering and veraison of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) using a new extensive phenological database. The Spring Warming ...
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Grapevine performances in five areas of ‘Chianti Classico’ Comportement de la vigne en cinq zones des « Chianti Classico »

The research was carried out in the ‘Chianti Classico’ area and it was part of the ‘Chianti Classico 2000’ research project. The performances ‘Sangiovese’ grapevine (clone ‘SSF-A548’) grafted on ‘1103P’ and ‘420A’ rootstocks, were evaluated during a six years period, on five experimental vineyards located in the Province of Florence ...
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Terroir zoning techniques

Towards a unified terroir zoning methodology in viticulture

In viticulture, terroir is a key concept that refers to an area and thus possesses a geographical dimension. Hence, zoning of viticultural terroir is an important issue. This paper addresses soil and climate related aspects of terroir zoning. The first step of the zoning process is a clear identification of ...
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Geostatistical analysis of the vineyards in the canton of Geneva in relation to soil and climate

Soil and climate maps at the 1:10000 scales exist for more than 12’000 ha of Swiss vineyards. The use of these maps as consulting tools for growers remains difficult due to the complexity of the relationship between terroir and the large number of grape varieties planted. The current distribution of ...
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An internet-based gis application for vineyard site assessment in the U.S. and matching grape variety to site

Vineyard site selection and determination of adapted grape varieties for a site are the most fundamental factors contributing to vineyard success, but can be challenging to ascertain, especially in developing wine regions. The objective of this research is to demonstrate, and describe the development of an internet based, scientifically objective ...
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Identifying New Zealand Sauvignon blanc terroirs

The concept of terroir is well established in the ‘old world’ wine industry but its use is still relatively new in New Zealand. Marlborough Sauvignon blanc has become a benchmark for Sauvignon blanc around the world. However, under The NZ Geographical Indications (Wines and Spirits) Registration Act 2006, this label ...
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Meso-scale future climate modeling (5 km resolution): application over French wine regions under the SRES A2 scenario (2041-2050)

In order to assess climate change at regional scales suitable to viticulture, the outputs of ARPEGE_Climat global model (resolution 0.5°) were downscaled using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and nested grids, providing downscaled datasets of 5 km resolution over France. Simulations were performed for two periods: 1991-2000, to assess ...
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Terroir enhancement

Conservation: the best valorisation strategy for wine growing areas

Terroir encompasses many elements, including environment, grapes and human inputs that together contribute to the final wine quality of a certain wine growing area. From the actual market situation, a clear trend has being emerging in the last years: only a small part of the total wine demand is oriented ...
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Pinot noir: an endemic or a flexible variety?

Pinot noir has its historical roots in Burgundy and is generally considered as an endemic vine variety which means that its adaptation is very specific to this environment and that its wines are the most expressive in the same particular situations. Now, Pinot noir has become an international variety because ...
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On the meaning of looking for terroir perceptions in blind tastings

If one considers as “physical or sensory attributes” of a wine its concentrations of alcohol and of other substances, it can be stated that another class of attributes exists, which can be called “metaphysical attributes”, mainly linked to feelings ignited by terroir information. Therefore, wine consumers can be divided in ...
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The characteristics of strong territorial brands: the case of Champagne

While most brands belong to individual enterprises, some brands belong to groups of enterprises based in a single territory. This conceptual paper examines the characteristics of these territorial brands using the lens of the wine of Champagne in France. Employing a series of past studies the paper first explores the ...
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Conventions and methods towards landscape quality: an application in the Douro (Portugal)

Vineyards are one of the most recognizable icons of the Mediterranean landscapes and of its cultural identity. In Portugal, in the areas where the terroir are particularly adjusted to the vine culture (Appellation of Origin) important changes have been affecting the landscapes, as a result of both European Agricultural Policy ...
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Collective management for landscape and biodiversity conservation in viticulture: The Life + BioDiVine project

Environmental awareness is globally rising among scientific community, politicians and general public. Biodiversity conservation is becoming a concern for farmers. Wine growers have to face new environmental challenges, both through new regulations but also for communication and marketing. Indeed customers and consumers are more and more demanding “green” products, and ...
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