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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Délimitation des terroirs dans les A.O. Rueda et Toro (Castilla y León-Espagne)

Délimitation des terroirs dans les A.O. Rueda et Toro (Castilla y León-Espagne)

Abstract

La délimitation et la caractérisation des zones viticoles posent en Espagne des problèmes spécifiques non seulement dus aux caractéristiques propres au territoire mais aussi à la dimension, la distribution et l’indice d’occupation viticole dans les appellations d’origine.
Il se propose une méthodologie basée sur une analyse de l’environnement incluant l’intégration des variables se référant au climat, végétation, topographie, lithologie, morphologie du relief et du sol.
Le climat s’étudie à travers les différentes variables quantitatives (température, précipitation, évapotranspiration, gelées, indices climatiques, bioclimatiques et viticoles, bilan hydrique). Grâce à l’analyse statistique (Classification automatique, AFD, ACP, … ) les variables qui fournissent une information redondante s’éliminent, permettant la constitution d’un modèle à trois variables (Précipitation, Indice de Winkler, Risque des Gelées Printanières) duquel se configure une cartographie de zones climatiques viticoles.
A partir de l’analyse des cartes de végétation naturelle et potentielle s’établissent des critères d’exclusion dérivés de l’existence d’espèces endémiques et de masses forestières d’intérêt écologique.
La configuration d’un modèle digital du terrain permet l’utilisation des variables jusqu’à la difficulté de cartographier, malgré sa grande importance viticole, concrètement l’exposition et la pente.
Les variables relatives à la lithologie, la morphologie du relief et du sol sont évaluées à partir du concept de Série de Sols. La résultante c’est une carte dont les unités cartographiques synthétisent les relations entre Unité Lithologique, Géoforme et Série de Sols et sont évaluées du point de vue viticole par un système paramétrique adapté aux conditions écologiques de la vigne.
Le traitement de l’information engendrée dans les couches cartographiques citées par un Système d’Information Géographique (SIG) donne comme résultat la quantification des contenus et la possibilité de son traitement statistique.
Finalement, la cartographie de la distribution actuelle de la vigne dans l’appellation permet de réaliser la validation des résultats grâce à sa comparaison aux unités cartographiques précédemment définies.

A methodology to viticulture zonation is proposed. This methodology is based on the environmental study, and it includes variables related to the climate, vegetation and soil, and others relative to topography, lithology and geomorphology.
The climatic study was carried out from a large number of quantitative variables such as temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration, humidity balance and climatic, bio-climatic and viticulture indexes. Using multivariate analysis such as PCA, DFA, and cluster, the redundant variables were eliminated and only the variables with a high eigenvalue were chosen. The mathematical models obtained allowed determining a map with the climatical viticultural zones.
Excluding criteria were determined from vegetation maps (natural and potential vegetation). Zones in which endemic species grow and forestall zones with important ecological value were considered.
A digital terrain model allows the use of variables difficult to represent such as the exposure and slope (angle and longitude).
The variables related to lithology, geomorphology and soil are valorised using the Soil Series. The result is a map with soil map units, which summarise the relationship among lithology units, geoforme and soil units. Then, the map units are evaluated according to a parametric system adapted to the ecological conditions for the vineyard.
In the last stage, the whole information is treated with a Geographic Information System (GIS), which allow analysing and explaining all the information content in the pool of studied variables.
The validation of the results is carried out comparing the obtained results with the specific zone maps of distribution of vineyard and productions of grape.

DOI:

Publication date: February 15, 2022

Issue: Terroir 2002

Type: Article

Authors

Vicente SOTES and Vicente GOMEZ-MIGUEL

Departamentos de Fitotecnia y Edafología de la ETS de Ingenieros Agrónomos.
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. (Avda Complutense s/n. 28040-Madrid)

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IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2002

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