IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Formation And Evolution Of Minty Terpenoids During Model Ageing Of Cabernet Franc And Merlot Wines

Formation And Evolution Of Minty Terpenoids During Model Ageing Of Cabernet Franc And Merlot Wines


In recent years, a pool of terpenoids possibly implicated in minty odours and in the appreciable refreshing sensation, has been identified in long aged red Bordeaux wines (Lisanti et al., 2021, Picard et al., 2016; Picard et al., 2017). These compounds were found to play a key role in the so-called “ageing bouquet”, that can be defined as  “the homogeneous, harmonious flavour resulting from the complex transformation process in wine during bottle storage” (Picard et al., 2015). Moreover the minty-fresh sensory dimension in fine aged red wines plays an important role in typicity judgement by wine professionals (Picard et al., 2015). Recent results on Corvina and Corvinone wines, revealed that
these compounds already exist in young wines, but at lower concentrations than in aged ones (Lisanti et al., 2019), thus suggesting their increase during ageing. However, little is still known on the origin of minty terpenoids in wine and on their evolution during ageing. In some vegetal species, as mint, these terpenoids arise from an enzymatic limonene biotransformation pathway, however also their chemical origin from limonene or other precursors may not be excluded.
In the present study, an experiment of model ageing was conducted on young Cabernet franc (CF) and
Merlot (M) wines, with the aim to give a contribution to the comprehension of the origin of minty terpenoids in aged wines. Two 1-year-old wines of the Bordeaux area, Merlot and Cabernet franc, were warmed under controlled conditions, in order to mimic a part of ageing. Limonene, 1,8-cineole, menthone, pulegone, carvone, piperitone, mintlactone, menthyl acetate and neomenthyl acetate were
determined at the beginning and after 2, 3, 7 and 11 days of accelerate ageing. The quantification of the minty terpenoids was performed by a new method that couples Headspace-SPME Arrow extraction with GC/MS-MS analysis (Lisanti et al., 2021).
During model ageing a progressive decrease of limonene concentration (up to 79%) was observed in both wines, whereas an increase was found for piperitone (+110% CF, +201% M), mintlactone (not detected in young wines), 1,8-cineole (+61% CF, +53% M) and neomenthyl acetate (+511% CF). Pulegone, menthone, carvone and menthyl acetate showed a different general trend: an initial increase was observed, followed by a decrease, with some differences between CF and M.  
In this work, for the first time the formation of some minty terpenoids was observed in red wines. Our
results suggest that a chemical conversion of limonene into its derivatives may occur. Also, the formation from precursors (volatile or non-volatile) may not be excluded. This study open the way to further investigation on the chemical mechanisms involved during real wine ageing.


Lisanti M.T., Laboirye J., Franc C., Luzzini G. Moio L., de Revel G., Marchand S. (2019). The limonene-derived mint aroma compounds in red wines. Recent advances on analytical, chemical and sensory aspects. Oral communication OENO-IVAS 2019- Bordeaux (France). 
Lisanti, M. T., Laboyrie, J., Marchand-Marion, S., de Revel, G., Moio, L., Riquier, L., & Franc, C. (2021). Minty aroma compounds in red wine: Development of a novel automated HS-SPME-arrow and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification method. Food Chem, 361, 130029.
Picard, M., de Revel, G., & Marchand, S. (2017). First identification of three p-menthane lactones and their potential precursor, menthofuran, in red wines. Food Chem, 217, 294-302.
Picard, M., Lytra, G., Tempere, S., Barbe, J. C., de Revel, G., & Marchand, S. (2016). Identification of piperitone as an aroma compound contributing to the positive mint nuances perceived in aged red Bordeaux wines. J Agric Food Chem, 64, 451-460.
Picard, M., Tempere, S., de Revel, G., & Marchand, S. (2015). A sensory study of the ageing bouquet of red Bordeaux wines: A three-step approach for exploring a complex olfactory concept. Food Qual Pref, 42, 110-122.


Publication date: June 27, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Poster


Lisanti Maria Tiziana1, Nioi Claudia2, Moio Luigi1, De Revel Gilles2 and Marchand Stephanie2

1University of Naples Federico II, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Division of Vine and Wine Sciences
2University of Bordeaux, ISVV, EA 4577, INRA, USC 1366 OENOLOGIE

Contact the author


Limonene derivatives, freshness, ageing bouquet, piperitone, terpenoids


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Maturation under different SO2 environments: the impact on amino acid and volatile profile for two white wines

EU countries are in the top 16 of the world’s wine producers. To respond to a public health concern, caused by SO2 excessive exposure

Influence of polysaccharide extracts from wine by-products on the volatile composition of sparkling white wines

In the production of sparkling wines, during the second fermentation, mannoproteins are released by yeast autolysis, which affect the quality of the wines. The effect of mannoproteins has been extensively studied, and may affect aroma and foam quality. However, there are no studies on the effect of other polysaccharides such as those from grapes. Considering the large production of waste from the wine industry, it was proposed to obtain polysaccharide-rich extracts from some of these by-products[1].

Determination of secondary metabolites as quality and typicalness tracers in autochthonous vitis vinifera grapes and wines from Ischia isle

[lwp_divi_breadcrumbs home_text="IVES" use_before_icon="on" before_icon="||divi||400" module_id="publication-ariane" _builder_version="4.19.4" _module_preset="default" module_text_align="center" module_font_size="16px" text_orientation="center"...

Influence of processing parameters on aroma profile of conventional and ecological Cabernet-Sauvignon red wine during concentration by reverse osmosis

Wine aroma represents one of the most important quality parameter and it is influenced by various factors (viticulture and vinification techniques, climate or storage conditions etc.). Wines produced from conventionally and ecologically grown grapes of same variety have different chemical composition and aroma profile [1]. Aroma profile of wine can be also influenced by additional treatment of wine, such as concentration of wine by reverse osmosis (RO). Reverse osmosis represents a pressure-driven membrane separation technique that separates the initial wine on the retentate or concentrate that is retained on the membrane, and permeate that passes through it [2]. Wine permeate usually containes water, ethanol, acetic acid and several low molecular weight compounds that can pass through the membrane. This property enables the use of reverse osmosis membranes for wine concentration, partial dealcoholization, acetic acid or aroma correction [3,4].

Identification of key-odorants in Sauternes Wines

The aim of the present work was to investigate Sauternes wines aromas. The flavor profiles of two wines (vintages 2002 and 2003) were investigated. Key-odorants have been determined by AEDA applied to Amberlite XAD-2 resin extracts. Various complementary techniques were used to identify the compounds (pHMB extraction, chemical synthesis of non-commercial standards, co-injections on two capillary columns, odor description at the sniffing port, GC-MS and GC-PFPD).