Terroir 2004 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Climatic zoning of the Ibero-American viticultural regions

Climatic zoning of the Ibero-American viticultural regions

Abstract

The Ibero-American Network of Viticulture, a component of the program of agricultural technology of the CYTED (Ibero-American Program of Science and Technology for Development), is developing the project “Zoning Methodology and Application in Viticultural Regions of Ibero-America”. An objective of the project is the climatic characterization of this large viticultural region with the participation of ten countries: Argentine, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Spain, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, and Uruguay. The first step in the research is based on Systematic Multi-criteria Climatic Classification (CCM) for Geo-viticultral regions. The project has assembled a climatic database that characterises the viticultural regions that includes variables relevant to viticulture: air temperature (average, maximum, and mininmum), precipitation, relative humidity, solar radiation, number of sunshine hours, wind speed, and evapotranspiration. The application of the climatic indices IH, IF, and IS of the CCM System, highlights the variability of the thermal and hydrological components of the viticultural climate. The analysis of the climatic database, show the large climatic variability of the region. The initial results have identified seventeen viticultural climates in the twenty-six viticultural regions in the nine countries of the project. The identified viticultural climates represent forty-four percent of the climatic groups identified at the global level. This large regional climatic variability explains, to a large extent, the large diversity in the products of the Ibero-America region, including the organolepctic characteristics and the uniqueness of the vines produced. The research has also highlighted viticultural areas characterised by large inter-annual climatic variability. In such areas, the viticultural climatic classification changes as a function of the time of the year where grape-wine can be produced. The undergoing climate zoning is going to be used is a second phase of the project as a component of an integrated study that includes regional edaphic factors, and indicators of ecophysiological responses of the vineyards to natural factors.

DOI:

Publication date: January 12, 2022

Issue: Terroir 2004

Type: Article

Authors

V. Sotés (1) et J. Tonietto (2)

(1) universidad Politécnica De Madrid, Etsi Agrónomos – Ciudad Universitaria S/N – E28040 – Madrid, Spain
(2) embrapa – National Research Center For Viticulture And Wine – Cnpuv, Rua Livramento, 515 ; 95700-000 – Bento Gonçalves, Brazil

Contact the author

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2004

Citation

Related articles…

Characterization of variety-specific changes in bulk stomatal conductance in response to changes in atmospheric demand and drought stress

In wine growing regions around the world, climate change has the potential to affect vine transpiration and overall vineyard water use due to related changes in atmospheric demand and soil water deficits. Grapevines control their transpiration in response to a changing environment by regulating conductance of water through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Most vineyard water use models currently estimate vine transpiration by applying generic crop coefficients to estimates of reference evapotranspiration, but this does not account for changes in vine conductance associated with water stress, nor differences thought to exist between varieties. The response of bulk stomatal conductance to daily weather variability and seasonal drought stress was studied on Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot, Tempranillo, Ugni blanc, and Semillon vines in a non-irrigated vineyard in Bordeaux France. Whole vine sap flow, temperature and humidity in the vine canopy, and net radiation absorbed by the vine canopy were measured on 15-minute intervals from early July through mid-September 2020, together with periodic measurement of leaf area, canopy porosity, and predawn leaf water potential. From this data, bulk stomatal conductance was calculated on 15-minute intervals, and multiple regression analysis was performed to identify key variables and their relative effect on conductance. Attention was focused on addressing multicollinearity and time-dependency in the explanatory variables and developing regression models that were readily interpretable. Variability of vapor pressure deficit over the day, and predawn water potential over the season explained much of the variability in conductance, with relative differences in response coefficients observed across the five varieties. By characterizing this conductance response, the dynamics of vine transpiration can be better parameterized in vineyard water use modeling of current and future climate scenarios.

Development and validation of a standardized oxidation assay for the accurate measurement of the ability of different wines to form “de novo” oxidation-related aldehydes

From the standpoint of wine aroma oxidation there are two effects observed: aroma degradation of oxygen sensitive compounds (polyfunctional mercaptans) and the appearance of new substances with high aromatic power (acetaldehyde, methional, phenylacetaldehyde, sotolon, alkenals, isobutanal and 2, 3-metylbutanals) (1-5). According to our experience, Strecker aldehydes are compounds with highest sensory relevance in the oxidative degradation of many wines (5-7).

IMPACT OF MANNOPROTEIN N-GLYCOSYL PHOSPHORYLATION AND BRANCHING ON WINE POLYPHENOL INTERACTIONS WITH YEAST CELL WALLS

Yeast cell walls (CWs) may adsorb wine components with a significant impact on wine quality. When dealing with red wines, this adsorption is mainly related to physicochemical interactions between wine polyphenols and cell wall mannoproteins. However, mannoproteins are a heterogeneous family of complex peptidoglycans including long and highly branched N-linked oligosaccharides and short linear O-linked oligosaccharides, resulting in a huge structural diversity.

IMPACT OF FINING WITH K-CARRAGEENAN, BENTONITE, AND CHITOSAN ON PROTEIN STABILITY AND MACROMOLECULAR COMPOUNDS OF ALBARIÑO WHITE WINE PRODUCED WITH AND WITHOUT PRE-FERMENTATIVE SKIN MACERATION

Pre-fermentative skin maceration is a technique used in white wine production to enhance varietal aroma, but it can increase protein concentration, leading to protein instability and haze formation [1]. To prevent protein instability, wine producers typically use fining agents such as bentonite, before wine bottling, which can negatively impact sensory characteristics and produce waste [2,3]. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of alternative techniques such as the application of polysaccharides (k-carrageenan and chitosan) on protein stability and on the wine macromolecular composition.

Oxygen consumption by diferent oenological tanins in a model wine solution

INTRODUCTION: Oenological tannins are widely used in winemaking to improve some characteristics of wines [1] being the antioxidant properties probably one of the main reasons [2]. However, commercial tannins have different botanical sources and chemical composition [3] which probably determines different antioxidant potential. There are some few references about the antioxidant properties of commercial tannins [4] but none of them have really measured the direct oxygen consumption by them. The aim of this work was to measure the kinetics of oxygen consumption by different commercial tannins in order to determine their real capacities to protect wine against oxygen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 4 different commercial tannins were used: T1: condensed tannin from grape seeds, T2: gallotannin from chinese gallnuts, T3: ellagitannin from oak and T4: tannin from quebracho containing condensed tannins and ellagitannins.