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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Étude de la variabilité des facteurs naturels du terroir viticole, à travers une gamme d’A.O.C. en Anjou (France)

Étude de la variabilité des facteurs naturels du terroir viticole, à travers une gamme d’A.O.C. en Anjou (France)

Abstract

Un programme de recherche concernant les facteurs naturels et humains des terroirs viticoles a été développé dans le vignoble A.O.C. de l’Anjou, sur une surface d’environ 30.000 Ha. L’étude des facteurs naturels du terroir a été réalisée avec une méthode basée sur le concept d’Unité Terroir de Base (U.T.B.), utilisant une double clef géologique et un modèle agro-pédologique de terrain (roche, altération, altérite) pour identifier et cartographier l’U.T.B.
Ce vignoble présente une grande diversité d’Unités Terroir de Base car il comporte à la fois des formations géologiques métamorphiques ou éruptives du Massif Armoricain ancien, et des terrains sédimentaires du Bassin Parisien. On y rencontre une intéressante hiérarchie d’Appellations d’Origine Contrôlée (A.O.C.), aussi bien pour les vins rouges que pour les vins blancs. Un véritable emboîtement d’A.O.C., sur le plan de la notoriété, peut s’observer pour les vins blancs liquoreux (Coteaux du Layon < Coteaux du Layon Villages < Bonnezeaux et Quarts de Chaume).
On a pu étudier, au plan des facteurs naturels du terroir, les particularités des principales A.O.C. de l’Anjou et comparer ces dernières entre elles, et cela également en fonction de la notoriété de chacune. Les principaux résultats obtenus par Analyse en Composantes Multiples, montrent une forte structuration des données relatives à l’ensemble des A.O.C. de l’Anjou. Les A.O.C. à vins blancs liquoreux sont mieux caractérisées que celles à vins rouges, au titre des facteurs naturels (édaphiques et paysagers). Elles se rencontrent en général sur des sols plus minces que les secondes (principalement sur milieu roche), plus caillouteux, en situation de pentes moyennes à fortes, avec un bon drainage de l’eau mais aussi avec une réserve en eau faible à moyenne. Sur le plan viticole, ces A.O.C. présentent un fort potentiel de précocité, tandis que celui de vigueur est plutôt faible à moyen. Ces divers éléments semblent favorables à une bonne surmaturation du raisin.
Il faut aussi noter que les A.O.C. les plus renommées (Quarts de Chaume et Bonnezeaux) ont chacune certaines particularités (quelques UTB majoritaires les caractérisent), et de ce fait sont relativement différentes sur le plan des facteurs naturels qui les composent.
Les résultats d’ensemble de l’étude montrent qu’il y a une bonne adéquation entre le type de vin A.O.C. produit et les caractéristiques des facteurs naturels de la zone A.O.C. correspondante.

DOI:

Publication date: February 24, 2022

Issue: Terroir 2000

Type: Article

Authors

F. Bodin*, R. Morlat*, D. Rioux**, S. Cesbron**, J. Boyer***

*U.R.V.V. INRA. 42, rue Georges Morel. 49071 Angers. France
**Equipe Terroirs d’Anjou. Angers
***U.E.R. Mathématiques et Statistiques, Université d’Angers

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2000

Citation

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