(+)-Catechin—laccase oxidation dimeric standards were hemi-synthesized using laccase from Trametes versicolor in a water-ethanol solution at pH 3.6. Eight fractions corresponding to eight potential oxidation dimeric products were detected. The fractions profiles were compared with profiles obtained with two other oxidoreductases: polyphenoloxidase extracted from grapes and laccase from Botrytis cinerea. The profiles were very similar, although some minor differences suggested possible dissimilarities in the reactivity of these enzymes. Five fractions were then isolated and analyzed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The addition of traces of cadmium nitrate in the samples solubilized in acetone-d6 led to fully resolved NMR signals of phenolic protons, allowing the unambiguous structural determination of six reaction products, one of the fractions containing two enantiomers. These products were then analyzed in grape seed extracts and red wines (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS). The different dimers had different fragmentation patterns according to their
interflavan linkage position. Oxidation dimeric compounds had a specific fragment ion at m/z 393, missing for B-Type dimers fragmentations. A fragment ion at m/z 291 occurred and was specific for oxidation dimeric compounds with a C-O-C linkage. Higher level oxidation products had abundant specific fragments: m/z 425, 397 and 245. These fragmentations were useful to identify them in complex samples such as grape seed extracts and wines. Three grape varieties and three ripening stages were selected and the corresponding seed extracts were obtained. The analyses revealed an increasing trend for the oxidation markers during grape ripening. The analysis of Syrah wines (2018, 2014, 2010) showed a decreasing trend of these molecules during wine ageing which might be due to further oxidation.
Authors: Saucier Cedric1, Deshaies Stacy1, Le Guernevé Christine1,2, Sommerer Nicolas1,2, Garcia Lucas Suc François1, Mouls Laetitia1
1SPO, Université de Montpellier, INRAE, Institut Agro, UMR SPO, Faculté de Pharmacie, 15 avenue Charles Flahault, 34000 Montpellier, France
2INRAE, PROBE Research Infrastructure, PFP Polyphenol Facility, 34060 Montpellier, France
*corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
keywords: wine, grape, polyphenol,oxidation, catechin