IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Deciphering the color of rosé wines using polyphenol targeted metabolomics

Deciphering the color of rosé wines using polyphenol targeted metabolomics


The color of rosés wines is extremely diverse  and a key element in their marketing. It is  due to the presence of red anthocyanins extracted from grape skins and pigments formed from them and other wine constituents during wine-making. To explore the link between composition and color, 268 commercial rosé wines were analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis in the MRM (multiple reaction monitoring) mode [1] and their color characterized using spectrophotometry. The concentration of 125 phenolic compounds was thus determined and related to color parameters using chemometrics [2]. Color intensity is primarily determined by the extent of polyphenol extraction from the grapes. However, different compositions characterize the different color styles. Dark rosé wines contain high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavanols and their color, like that of red wines, is attributable to these molecules and their reaction products. In contrast, major phenolic compounds in light rosé wines are hydroxycinnamic acids and their salmon shade is mostly due to phenylpyranoanthocyanins and carboxypyranoanthocyanin pigments, resulting from reactions of anthocyanins, respectively with these phenolic acids and with pyruvic acid, a yeast metabolite. Redness of intermediate color wines is associated to anthocyanins and carboxypyranoanthocyanins while yellowness seems related to oxidation.The same approach was applied to monitor color and composition changes during fermentation of six rosé musts made from Grenache, Cinsault and Syrah grapes. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the major phenolic compounds in Grenache and Cinsault musts while the Syrah musts showed higher concentrations of anthocyanins and flavanols, indicating that polyphenol extraction is not only related to maceration conditions but also depends on varietal characteristics. These differences resulted in different proportions of derived pigments as observed on the rosé wine collection [2]. Comparison of the spectrophotometric and MRM data indicated that the majority of phenolic compounds in the Cinsault musts were not among the compounds targeted by MRM. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis of the musts showed different profiles for the three varieties, Cinsault musts containing large proportions of oligomeric compounds likely derived from hydroxycinnamates. These larger molecular weight compounds were no longer detected after fermentation and were partly recovered from the yeast lees. Comparison of the SEC profiles obtained at different wavelengths also suggest that pigments of Cinsault and Grenache are hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, likely resulting from enzymatic oxidation. Non targeted metabolomics approaches provided further information on these pigments.


Publication date: June 23, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Article


Cheynier, Véronique1, Leborgne Cécile2, Ducasse Marie-Agnès3, Meudec Emmanuelle1, Verbaere Arnaud1, Sommerer Nicolas1, Boulet Jean-Claude1, Masson Gilles2 and Mouret Jean-Roch11

SPO, INRAE, Univ Montpellier, Institut Agro, INRAE, PROBE research infrastructure, PFP Polyphenol Analytical Facility
2 SPO, INRAE, Univ Montpellier, Institut Agro, Montpellier, France; Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin, Centre du rosé, Vidauban, France
3 Institut Français de la Vigne et du Vin, UMT OENOTYPAGE, Domaine de Pech Rouge, Gruissan, France

Contact the author


UHPLC-MS/MS, polyphenols, rosé wines, color, chemometrics


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.