Effect of Quercus Alba oak barrels from different forests on the polyphenolic composition of Tempranillo red wines
AIM: The species and origin used for red wine oak aging determines the physiological composition of the wood and thus the finished wines. In America, oak is grown primarily in the states of Virginia, Missouri, Kentucky, Oregon, Ohio, Minnesota, Wisconsin and California. The aim of this study was to analyze how the choice of barrels made with Quercus Alba oak from different geographic areas of the United States (Missouri, Kentucky, Ohio and Pennsylvania) influences the polyphenolic composition of Tempranillo red wines.
METHODS: In this study, twelve different Tempranillo wines were aged for 12 months in new 225-liter American oak barrels (medium toast degree) from different forest of the United States: Missouri, Kentucky, Ohio and Pennsylvania. These barrels were made by the Toneleria Murua in 2018 and the experiences were carried out in twelve wineries of the D.O.Ca Rioja and D.O. Rueda. Samples were taken when the wines after 6 and 12 months of aging. The monomeric phenolic compounds were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) according to the methodology proposed by Gómez-Alonso et al. (2007).
RESULTS: After 12 months of aging, wines aged in Missouri oak showed significantly higher values of total anthocyanins and stilbenes. Wines aged in Kentucky and Ohio oak showed significantly higher values of total flavonols and ellagitannins. Wines aged in Pennsylvania barrels showed higher concentrations of catechin.
CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the geographical origin of the Quercus Alba oak significantly affected the polyphenolic composition of the wines. The results obtained in the present study could help for selecting the oak origin that best suited to the different wines.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The authors would like to thank the Gobierno de La Rioja for the funding provided for this study through the project ADER2019-I-IDD-00067.
Gómez-Alonso, S.; García-Romero, E., Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I. (2007). HPLC analysis of diverse grape and wine phenolics using direct injection and multidetection by DAD and fluorescence. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20, 618-626.
Issue: IVAS 2022
1Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (Universidad de la Rioja, Gobierno de La Rioja y CSIC)
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Oak in wine aging, geographical origin, polyphenolic compounds