Recent advances in our understanding of the impact of climate change on wine grape production
Context and purpose of the study – According to the last IPCC report, the scale of recent climate changes are unprecedented over many centuries. Each of the last four decades has been successively warmer than any decade since 1850. Projections for the future foresee that temperature could reach +3.3°C to +5.7°C under the most pessimistic scenario. It is also projected that every region will face more concurrent and multiple changes in climatic impact-drivers. The frequency of extreme climate events is also likely to increase, as well as the occurrence of indirect constraints. These evolving climatic conditions are alrealdy affecting and will continue to affect the suitability of traditional wine grape production areas, but also create opportunities in new locations.
To assess the impact of climate change on grape production, higher atmospheric CO2 content and temperatures, as well as modified water regimes are the most considered environmental parameters, although some other features such as light quality can play a significant role. These parameters affect directly the basic physiological activities of the grapevine plant such as photosynthetic activity, mineral and water uptake, with consequences on vegetative and reproductive development as well as metabolic activities. These responses are also under the control of genotypes (both scions and rootstocks) and cultural practices. More and more studies are released, improving deeply our understanding of the mechanisms involved. At whole plant level, impacts are assessed in terms of phenology, yield, vegetative development and fruit composition. Considering the current situation, it is well known that the growing season has on average lengthened by up to 2 days per decade since the 1950s in the Northern Hemisphere and recent millesimes have experienced the most early harvests for several centuries. Berry composition has also evolved with an increasing sugar content and pH, and modified polyphenolic and aromatic compound concentrations. Crop levels have also been affected in some Mediterranean regions where water is limiting. Other living organisms interacting positively or negatively with grapevine such as microorganisms or insects are also impacted by climatic conditions, and this may affect the health status of the plant. Evaluating the impacts under future climatic conditions is a challenge by itself. While experiments are enable to test the basic physiological responses, integrating the global and long term impacts at plant or vineyard level is more complex. Combining climate and plant models is almost mandatory to simulate how grapevine could perform in the future.
From recent data collected in our research groups, we will illustrate the advances in terms of understanding the responses of grapevine from molecular to whole plant level and how modeling is a powerful tool to integrate these responses over spatial and time scales and enable to project ourselves in the future.
Issue: GiESCO 2023
1EGFV, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRAE, ISVV, F-33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2SAVE, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRAE, ISVV, F-33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
3AGROCLIM, INRAE, F-84000 Avignon, France
4BIOGEOSCIENCES, CNRS, University of Bourgogne-Franche Comté, CNRS, F-21000 Dijon, France
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Vitis, climate change, abiotic stresses, biotic interactions, complexity, modelling