terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2023 9 The impact of delayed grapevine budbreak on lemberger wine sensory compounds under variable weather conditions

The impact of delayed grapevine budbreak on lemberger wine sensory compounds under variable weather conditions

Introduction

Spring freeze events threaten grape production globally 1–3. As grape buds emerge from dormancy in spring, freezing temperatures have the potential to damage green tissues 4,5, decreasing yield potential and compromising fruit quality by harvest 2,6,7. Bud freeze damage may become more frequent if global warming accelerates budbreak without a concurrent decrease in spring freeze events 3,8. One promising strategy to prevent grapevine freeze damage is to delay budbreak, for example by applying chemical products during dormancy 7,9,10 or by postponing winter pruning until after budbreak 11. Although these methods are effective at preventing freeze damage, in cool climates with short fruit ripening periods, delaying budbreak has the potential to delay the development of sugars, phenolics, and volatile compounds in fruit, negatively impacting the flavor, aroma, and mouthfeel of finished wines. In this study, we evaluated the impact of two techniques to delay grapevine budbreak on volatile and nonvolatile compounds of Lemberger wines (Vitis vinifera), and we related the impacts on wine composition to consumer perception, over three vintages at a cool-climate site.

This study builds on our past work, where we investigated the effects of applying a chemical spray product and delayed winter pruning on Lemberger budbreak, freeze damage, yield parameters, and basic wine chemistry in 2018 and 2019 7. While we found no differences in basic fruit and wine chemistry by harvest, vines with later budbreak tended to show a delay in berry color change around veraison, assessed in mid-August each year, suggesting a delayed onset of phenolic compounds that went uncharacterized. Furthermore, in the pilot year of that study (2017, unpublished data), budbreak was delayed up to 23 days, over twice as much as the highest delay in 2018 and 2019, which led to an even more extensive delay in the onset of veraison. Due to distinct variations in key phenological stages and seasonal weather conditions over the three years of the study, we expanded our research to understand the extent to which delaying budbreak affects volatile and nonvolatile compounds in wines from 2017-2019.

Here, we aimed to determine how delaying budbreak and the onset of fruit ripening impacts wine chemical composition and whether impacts of delaying budbreak are consistent among years, or if they mainly depend on factors such as seasonal weather. We also evaluated if consumers could detect differences between wines made from vines that experienced a different degree of delayed budbreak and onset of veraison. We hypothesized that, among vintages, seasonal weather metrics would more strongly impact overall wine composition than delaying key phenological stages (i.e., budbreak and veraison), regardless of the extent of delay. However, within each vintage, we hypothesized that if there was still a delay in fruit phenological development at veraison, delayed budbreak treatments would lead to lower concentrations of nonvolatile (e.g., tannins and anthocyanins) and volatile (e.g., terpenoids and ethyl esters) compounds in finished wines, which consumers would be able to detect.

DOI:

Publication date: June 20, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Meredith PERSICO1, Donald SMITH1, Maria SMITH1, Helene HOPFER2, Michela CENTINARI1*

1Dept. of Plant Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
2Dept. of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA

Contact the author*

Keywords

freeze avoidance, budbreak, climate change, wine composition, sensory perception

Tags

GiESCO | GIESCO 2023 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Impact of some agronomic practices on grape skins anthocyanin content

Wine colour is the first quality characteristic to be assessed, especially regarding red wines. Anthocyanins are very well known to be the main responsible compounds for red wine colour. Red cultivars can synthesize and accumulate anthocyanins in berry skin to express their colour. However, anthocyanin accumulation is often influenced by a series of factors, such as genetic regulation, phytohormones, environmental conditions and viticultural management.

Characterization of Glycosidically Bound Aroma Compounds of País cv. grapes of different Chilean zones

Úbeda-Aguilera, C., a Callejón, R. M., b Peña-Neira, A c. a Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile b Área de Nutrición y Bromatología. Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad de Sevilla. C/ P. García González nº 2, E- 41012. Sevilla. Spain c Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile País grape has been estimated to arrive to Chile almost 500 years ago, being the first strain grown in this country. Traditionally, this grape has been used to mix with other varieties, to produce poor quality wines, but today is beginning to be used in the production of high quality wines. However, very little is known about the chemical characteristics of this variety.

Ageing of Sauvignon Blanc white wines with Specific Inactivated Dry Yeasts: Effect on physical and chemical characteristics

Del Barrio-Galán, R.a, b, Gómez-Parrini, A.a, Peña-Neira, A.b a Lallemand Inc. Chile y Compañía Limitada, Rosario Norte 407, piso 6, Las condes, Santiago, Chile b Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile It is well known that polysaccharides, mainly mannoproteins, play an important role on physical, chemical and sensory quality of wines. The ageing of white wines on lees is used in order to release higher amounts of polysaccharides by the autolytic processes in order to obtain higher-quality wines. However, this technique is too slow, because the temperature and pH conditions are not the most suitable for this process. In addition, it can also involve certain disadvantages such as a greater demand on winery resources, a longer period of wine storage, the appearance of reduction notes and some microbiological alterations.

Effect of ageing with Specific Inactivated Dry Yeasts on the volatile composition of Sauvignon Blanc and Carménère wines

Úbeda-Aguilera, C a, b, Peña-Neira, A.b Del Barrio-Galán, R.b, c a Biomedical Sciences Institute, Science Faculty, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile. b Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile c Lallemand Inc. Chile y Compañía Limitada, Rosario Norte 407, piso 6, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile The wine is a complex matrix made up of several compounds which can interact among themselves throughout the wine ageing process, thereby modifying their sensorial characteristics. It is well known that during ageing of wines on lees, polysaccharides (mainly mannoproteins) can be released and can interact with the aromatic fraction modifying its volatility.

New molecular evidence of wine yeast-bacteria interaction unraveled by untargeted metabolomic profiling

Bacterial malolactic fermentation (MLF) has a considerable impact on wine quality. The yeast strain used for primary fermentation can consistently stimulate (MLF+ phenotype) or inhibit (MLF- phenotype) malolactic bacteria and the MLF process as a function of numerous winemaking practices, but the molecular evidence behind still remains a mystery. In this study, such evidence was elucidated by the direct comparison of extracellular metabolic profiles of MLF+ and MLF- yeast phenotypes. Untargeted metabolomics combining ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR-MS analysis, powerful machine learning methods and a comprehensive wine metabolite database, discovered around 800 putative biomarkers and 2500 unknown masses involved in phenotypic distinction.