terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2023 9 Identifying best parameters to characterize genotypes capability of retaining adequate malic acid at harvest and in final wines

Identifying best parameters to characterize genotypes capability of retaining adequate malic acid at harvest and in final wines


Under current climate change pressures, obtaining grapes with adequate acidity at harvest is one of the main challenges for growers, especially if the goal is producing sparkling wines. This issue arises from two main occurrences: i) higher temperatures enhance degradation of malic acid; ii) grape maturity may occur under suboptimal climatic conditions due to an advanced phenology (Palliotti et al. 2014). For this reason, the introduction of new varieties or the reconsideration of minor and insofar neglected cultivars or clones are gaining enormous interest and popularity (Palliotti et al. 2014, Poni et al. 2020, Antolìn et al. 2020). However, criteria for the identification of performing genotypes in terms of ‘acidity at harvest’ are complex. Late veraison and ripening can be inappropriate traits, since they do not necessarily mean that grapes maintain adequate acidity in relation to a satisfying sugars concentration (Palliotti et al. 2014, Frioni et al. 2020). Considering the evolution and the destination of organic acids in grapes, pre-veraison malic acid pool could represent a promising trait. In the same framework, an eventual genetic control over malic acid degradation rates could lead to different conclusions. The same can be said for the ratio between minimum acidity and starting malate abundancy, or for sugars/acidity ratio. However, any of the above-mentioned parameters seems to underestimate some of the factors involved, or in any case to provide an incomplete overview of grapes ripening.


Publication date: June 20, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2023

Type: Article


Tommaso FRIONI1*, Riccardo COLLIVASONE1, Silvia PAGANI1, Ginevra CANAVERA1, Matteo GATTI1, Mario GABRIELLI2, Stefano PONI1

1Dept. Of Sustainable Crop Production, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, PC, Italy
2Dept. Of Sustainable Food Processing, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, PC, Italy

Contact the author*


acidity, malic acid, phenotyping, germoplasm, wine quality


GiESCO | GIESCO 2023 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.