terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2023 9 Viticultural parameters and enological performance of six Merlot clones in two contrasting vintages

Viticultural parameters and enological performance of six Merlot clones in two contrasting vintages

Abstract

Context and purpose of the study 

Vitis vinifera L. and other Vitis have high genetic variations for cultivars or varieties. Many countries carried out strong efforts creating new clones of varieties, mainly focusing on plants free of viruses and other grapevine diseases, but also on different agronomical and enological characteristics of the plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate six clones of Merlot in the traditional viticulture of southeastern Brazil, focusing on distinct characteristics of yield, enological potential of grapes and wine typicality, in order to improve wine quality.

Material and methods

Six Merlot clones grafted onto Paulsen 1103 rootstock were planted in 2018, and evaluated in two consecutive vegetative cycles (2021 and 2022), analyzing viticultural and enological parameters. The 2021 vintage was characterized as wet in the beginning and dry close to the harvest date; the 2022 vintage was dry in the beginning and very dry at the end. Vines were trained on vertical shoot positioning (VSP), trellised in bilateral cordons, with 1 m spacing between plants and 2.5 m between rows. The experimental design was a randomized block, with four replicates of twelve plants each per clone per treatment. French and Italian breeding programs developed the evaluated clones: INRA-ENTAV 181 (standard, already used in the region by many wineries), R12, VCR 1, VCR 101, ENTAV 348 and ENTAV 519. Viticultural parameters evaluated were days until budburst, days until flowering, days until maturation, days until harvest, total cycle, yield per vine, and yield per hectare, in both vintages, taking as reference the solstice day (June 21st). From each experimental unit, two hundred berries were collected at harvest, to determine enological parameters and 20 kg of grapes per treatment were gathered for winemaking. Wines were elaborated in an experimental scale, according to classical protocols. After bottling, wines were analyzed to determine classical parameters and phenolic compounds. Results are shown as the mean of two vintages.

Results

Significant differences were observed for all clones, in all phenological stages, except for days of flowering, yield per vine and yield per hectare. The climatic condition was different and influenced all parameters, except in days for maturation. Clone Merlot R12 was the earliest to be harvested, at 167.6 days, followed by VCR1, ENTAV 519 and VCR101, ENTAV 348, and the last was clone ENTAV 181, at 176.0 days. Yield was not significantly different between clones, but vintage has a significant effect, with higher values observed in 2021. Grape composition varied in total soluble sugars, higher in clones ENTAV 181 and ENTAV 348, followed by other four clones. No differences were observed in pH and titratable acidity. Wines had significant differences in alcohol degree, total titratable acidity, color intensity, and total phenol index (TPI), while no differences were observed to the other parameters. Clones VCR1 and ENTAV 181 had the highest alcohol degree, while ENTAV 348, VCR1, and R12 had greater TPI. These results bring new alternatives for producers and wineries, showing the importance to choose between clones with different agronomical and enological characteristics, mainly increasing the harvest period, as well as the possibility to elaborate young or aging wines.

DOI:

Publication date: June 20, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Giuliano E. PEREIRA1, Juliane B. de OLIVEIRA1, Leo D. H. C. S. CONCEIÇÃO1, Mauro C. ZANUS,
 Adeliano CARGNIN, Flávio B. FIALHO, Gabriela SPEROTTO1 and Jorge R. DUCATI2

1Embrapa Grape & Wine, Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil
2Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul-UFRGS, Porto Alegre-RS, Brazil

Contact the author*

Keywords

Vitis vinifera L., terroir, grape, wine, phenolic compounds, typicality

Tags

GiESCO | GIESCO 2023 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Impact of some agronomic practices on grape skins anthocyanin content

Wine colour is the first quality characteristic to be assessed, especially regarding red wines. Anthocyanins are very well known to be the main responsible compounds for red wine colour. Red cultivars can synthesize and accumulate anthocyanins in berry skin to express their colour. However, anthocyanin accumulation is often influenced by a series of factors, such as genetic regulation, phytohormones, environmental conditions and viticultural management.

Characterization of Glycosidically Bound Aroma Compounds of País cv. grapes of different Chilean zones

Úbeda-Aguilera, C., a Callejón, R. M., b Peña-Neira, A c. a Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile b Área de Nutrición y Bromatología. Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad de Sevilla. C/ P. García González nº 2, E- 41012. Sevilla. Spain c Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile País grape has been estimated to arrive to Chile almost 500 years ago, being the first strain grown in this country. Traditionally, this grape has been used to mix with other varieties, to produce poor quality wines, but today is beginning to be used in the production of high quality wines. However, very little is known about the chemical characteristics of this variety.

Ageing of Sauvignon Blanc white wines with Specific Inactivated Dry Yeasts: Effect on physical and chemical characteristics

Del Barrio-Galán, R.a, b, Gómez-Parrini, A.a, Peña-Neira, A.b a Lallemand Inc. Chile y Compañía Limitada, Rosario Norte 407, piso 6, Las condes, Santiago, Chile b Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile It is well known that polysaccharides, mainly mannoproteins, play an important role on physical, chemical and sensory quality of wines. The ageing of white wines on lees is used in order to release higher amounts of polysaccharides by the autolytic processes in order to obtain higher-quality wines. However, this technique is too slow, because the temperature and pH conditions are not the most suitable for this process. In addition, it can also involve certain disadvantages such as a greater demand on winery resources, a longer period of wine storage, the appearance of reduction notes and some microbiological alterations.

Effect of ageing with Specific Inactivated Dry Yeasts on the volatile composition of Sauvignon Blanc and Carménère wines

Úbeda-Aguilera, C a, b, Peña-Neira, A.b Del Barrio-Galán, R.b, c a Biomedical Sciences Institute, Science Faculty, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile. b Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile c Lallemand Inc. Chile y Compañía Limitada, Rosario Norte 407, piso 6, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile The wine is a complex matrix made up of several compounds which can interact among themselves throughout the wine ageing process, thereby modifying their sensorial characteristics. It is well known that during ageing of wines on lees, polysaccharides (mainly mannoproteins) can be released and can interact with the aromatic fraction modifying its volatility.

New molecular evidence of wine yeast-bacteria interaction unraveled by untargeted metabolomic profiling

Bacterial malolactic fermentation (MLF) has a considerable impact on wine quality. The yeast strain used for primary fermentation can consistently stimulate (MLF+ phenotype) or inhibit (MLF- phenotype) malolactic bacteria and the MLF process as a function of numerous winemaking practices, but the molecular evidence behind still remains a mystery. In this study, such evidence was elucidated by the direct comparison of extracellular metabolic profiles of MLF+ and MLF- yeast phenotypes. Untargeted metabolomics combining ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR-MS analysis, powerful machine learning methods and a comprehensive wine metabolite database, discovered around 800 putative biomarkers and 2500 unknown masses involved in phenotypic distinction.