First insights on the intra-species diversity in V. berlandieri: environmental adaptation and agronomic performances when used as rootstock
Context and purpose of the study – In grafted plants, such as grapevine, increasing the diversity of rootstocks available to growers is an ideal strategy to get adaptation to climate change. The rootstocks used for grapevine are hybrids of various American Vitis, including V. berlandieri. The rootstocks currently used in vineyards are derived from breeding programs involving very small numbers of parental individuals.
Material and method – In 2005, 78 wild female V. berlandieri plants were ampelographically identified in Texas, USA. The coordinates and elevation of each sampling site were recorded. After growing the plants in field, we selected 286 genotypes. A genotyping by sequencing allowed us to extract 104,378 SNP and to explore the genetic structure of the V. berlandieri population. After grafting, 846 plants were grown in pots and evaluated for root-related traits for two independent years. In our experimental design, four rootstocks (110R, 5BB, SO4, and Börner) widely used in vineyards were added to the study population in order to evaluate the agronomical performances of V. berlandieri wild rootstocks.
Results – Two subpopulations were highlighted and related with variations in elevation, temperature and rainfall of sampling locations. A genome-environment association study highlighted 18 genetic markers associated with environmental variations. Root-related traits have shown a moderate variability (coefficient of variation from 0.15 to 0.45). Two genotypes were detected for their root-related traits performances when compared with commercial rootstocks. Moreover, 8 genetic markers were associated with four root related traits (the root average diameter, the number of small roots, the number of medium roots, and the total number of roots).
Our results shed new light on rootstock genetics and could open up possibilities for introducing greater diversity into genetic improvement programs for grapevine rootstocks in order to adapt grapevine facing climate change.
Issue: GiESCO 2023
1EGFV, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRAE, ISVV, F-33882, Villenave d’Ornon, France
2Department of Grapevine Breeding, Geisenheim University, Von Lade Str. 1, 65366 Geisenheim, Germany
3AGAP Institut, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRAE, Institut Agro, 34398 Montpellier, France
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root system architecture, genetics, QTL, water use efficiency, grafting