terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2023 9 A comparative study on physiological responses to drought in wild Vitis species 

A comparative study on physiological responses to drought in wild Vitis species 

Abstract

Context and purpose of the study – The crossings of three wild Vitis species are commonly used as rootstocks in wine production worldwide. Factors such as disease resistance and vigor are most important for their selection. 
With climate change extending drought conditions and water limitations, the selection of rootstocks conferring increased tolerance to drought takes on greater importance. Therefore, identifying Vitis species with improved drought tolerance and incorporating them into breeding programs could contribute to more resilient rootstocks under water limiting conditions. Furthermore, those species serve as a valuable resource to increase genetic variability of rootstocks. We hypothesize that species native to drier habitats will exhibit superior physiological performance under drought stress.

Materials and methods  

Root and canopy physiological characteristics of 20 North American wild Vitis species, across a wide latitudinal range (New England through Mexico and Puerto Rico), under two soil moisture treatments were evaluated using a whole-plant experimental approach. Anatomical and biochemical bases of photosynthetic capacity and response to water stress in wild Vitis accessions originating from habitats with varied climatic conditions were explored. Furthermore, links between leaf structural diversity and physiological features that enhance photosynthetic capacity and, whether genotype differences hold up under water stress conditions was investigated.
Experiments were performed in a greenhouse under ambient atmospheric conditions using clonal and non-grafted saplings of 24 Vitis species. The saplings were either subjected to a controlled dry down (target: 20–40% w/w ‘drought’) or maintained irrigated (70–90% w/w ‘control’) conditions. Measured physiological parameters included leaf and stem water potential, whole-plant and root system hydraulic conductance, leaf gas exchange and turgor, root and leaf biomass as well as spectra measurements . Additionally, X-ray imaging of plant tissue was performed and manual segmentation was used to prepare X-ray images for auto-segmentation through machine learning algorithms.
Linear regression models were used to describe relationships between anatomical and physiological variables and their associations with biogeoclimate variables. 

Results Our data show an impact of the drought treatment and indicate differential responses to drought stress across different species. Furthermore, structural differences that drive photosynthetic responses were found. Elucidating canopy traits associated with improved performance under drought could facilitate a rapid screening of germplasm to develop drought-tolerant rootstocks in the future.

DOI:

Publication date: June 21, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Miriam KALTENBACH1, Mina MOMAYYEZI1, Andrew J. MCELRONE1,2, Elisabeth J FORRESTEL1

1Department of Viticulture and Enology, University  of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2Crops Pathology and Genetics Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Davis, CA 95616, USA

Keywords

grapevine, hydraulic conductance, root performance, water-use efficiency, water stress, drought tolerance, Vitis

Tags

GiESCO | GIESCO 2023 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

IMPACT OF HARVEST DATE ON THE FINE MOLECULAR COMPOSITION OF MUST AND BORDEAUX RED WINE (VAR. MERLOT, CABERNET SAUVIGNON). FOCUS ON ACIDITY AND SENSORY IMPACT AFTER FIVE YEARS OF AGING

Climate change has brought several impacts that are becoming increasingly intense during the last few years and put at risk the quality of the berries or even the plant’s sustainability. Such extreme climatic events impact the composition of the wine while modulating its quality and the consumer preferences (Tempère et al., 2019). The three most important changes that take place in the must are: 1) decrease acidity, 2) increase of the concentration of sugar, hence increase of alcohol in the wine, and 3) modification
of the sensory balance and the development for example of cooked fruit aromas.

IMPACT OF CLIMATIC ZONES ON THE AROMATIC PROFILE OF CORVINA WINES IN THE VALPOLICELLA REGION

In Italy, in the past two decades, the rate of temperature increases (0.0369 °C per year) was slightly higher compared to the world average (0.0313 °C per year). It has also been indicated that the number and intensity of heat waves have increased considerably in the last decades. (IEA, 2022). Viticultural zones can be classified with climatic indexes. Huglin’s index (HI) considers the temperature in a definite area and has been considered as reliable to evaluate the thermal suitability for winegrape production (Zhang et al., 2023).

A synthesis approach on the impact of elevated CO2 on berry physiology and yield of Vitis vinifera

Besides the increase in global mean temperature the second main challenge of a changing climate is the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in relation to physiology and yield performance of grapevines. The benefits of increasing CO2 levels under greenhouse environment or open field studies have been well investigated for various annual crops. Research under free carbon dioxide enrichment on field-grown perennial plants such as grapevines is limited to a few studies. Further, chamber and greenhouse experiments have been conducted mostly on potted vines under eCO2 conditions.

Microbial ecosystems in wineries – molecular interactions between species and modelling of population dynamics

Microbial ecosystems are primary drivers of viticultural, oenological and other cellar-related processes
such as wastewater treatment. Metagenomic datasets have broadly mapped the vast microbial species
diversity of many of the relevant ecological niches within the broader wine environment, from vineyard
soils to plants and grapes to fermentation. The data highlight that species identities and diversity
significantly impact agronomic performance of vineyards as well as wine quality, but the complexity
of these systems and of microbial growth dynamics has defeated attempts to offer actionable
tools to guide or predict specific outcomes of ecosystem-based interventions.

Searching for the sweet spot: a focus on wine dealcoholization

It is well known that the vinification of grapes at full maturation can produce rich, full-bodied wines,
with intense and complex flavour profiles. However, the juice obtained from such grapes may have very
high sugar concentration, resulting in wines with an excessive concentration of ethanol. In addition, the decoupling between technological maturity and phenolic/aromatic one due to global warming, exacerbates this problem in some wine-growing regions. In parallel with the increase of the mean alcohol content of wines on the market, also the demand for reduced alcohol beverages has increased in recent years, mainly as a result of health and social concerns about the risks related to the consumption of alcohol.