terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2023 9 Key genes in rotundone biosynthesis are affected by temperature, light, water supply, and nitrogen uptake

Key genes in rotundone biosynthesis are affected by temperature, light, water supply, and nitrogen uptake


Context and purpose of the study – Rotundone accumulation and biosynthesis is a complicated process. Previous research highlighted that these phenomenons were affected under ecophysiological conditions by viticultural practices (e.g. defoliation or irrigation). Individually, these practices often impact several abiotic factors that are difficult to separate such as temperature, water or nitrogen status, or radiation. Such dissociation can be  achieved   under controlled environmental conditions using potted vines. Additionally, the expression of 3 major genes identified in rotundone biosynthesis namely Vitis vinifera terpene synthase 24 (VvTPS24),Vitis vinifera sesquiterpene oxidase 2 (VvSTO2) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) displayed correlation with rotundone accumulation. The objectives of this work were to assess i) the correlation between the expression of VvTPS24, VvSTO2 and FPPS  in berry and leaf, and ii) the impact of abiotic factors on the expression of these three candidate genes in leaves of non-bearing fruit grapevine cuttings grown under controlled environmental conditions.

Material and methods – Cuttings from Vitis vinifera L. cv Syrah and Tardif were produced in greenhouses until 16 leaves high. Cuttings were then put for 10 days for acclimatization in chambers with fully controlled atmosphere at 20 °C, 40 % relative humidity and 100 mL water supply per day. With the exception of the control treatment that was kept under these conditions, the other cuttings were then subjected to 4 different treatments, with 5 replicate cuttings per condition: a first batch was placed at 28°C, a second one was given 200 mL of water per day, a third one was put under a blackout net hiding 50 % of incoming light, and finally a fourth one was sprayed on each leaf with a nitrogen solution containing 22 g/L of urea. Another control batch was left in the same original conditions and sprayed with water. Leaves from the cuttings were sampled at 6, 24, 72 and 120 h. Cuttings being exempt of berries, berries and leaves from Syrah and Tardif grown in a neighboring commercial vineyard were sampled in parallel every 7 days from veraison until 49 days post veraison to investigate the correlation between the gene expression in these two organs. Every sample was stored at -80 °C until analysis. Total RNA from berries and leaves samples was extracted and every sample was subjected to RT-qPCR.

Results – VvTPS24, VvSTO2 and FPPS expression was directly influenced by all abiotic factors applied and apart for VvSTO2, their expression in leaves/berries and Syrah/Tardif could be correlated. This means that their expression in cuttings leaves is likely to be extrapolated to berries, and therefore might reflect rotundone biosynthesis and accumulation. Temperature above 25°C while known to lower rotundone concentration first reduced by a 2 to 10 factor and then after 72 h enhanced expression by 10 fold in every investigated genes. Water intake sequencially activated all genes suggesting a direct impact on biosynthesis which is consistent with previous research highlighting a stimulating effect of irrigation on rotundone accumulation. On the other hand, light regulation and nitrogen spraying did not have a conclusive influence on gene expressions having opposed effects on VvTPS24 and VvSTO2.. If the impact of nitrogen had never been previously investigated, it was recently proposed that radiations could stimulate rotundone production under field conditions.


Publication date: June 21, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2023

Type: Article


Thomas BAERENZUNG dit BARON1,2, Jean-Pierre PETIT3, Alban JACQUES1, Valerie SIMON2, Olivier GEFFROY1*

1PPGV – Physiologie, Pathologie et Génétique Végétale, Toulouse INP-Purpan, F-31076 Toulouse, France
2LCA – Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-industrielle, UMR 1010 INRAe/Toulouse INP-Toulouse, F-31030 Toulouse, France
3EGFV – Ecophysiologie et Génomique Fonctionnelle de la Vigne, ISVV, F-33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France

Contact the author*


rotundone, biosynthesis, abiotic factors, RT-qPCR, GC-MS, fruiting cuttings


GiESCO | GIESCO 2023 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.