terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2023 9 Assessing and mapping vineyard water status variability using a miniaturized nir spectrophotometer from a moving vehicle

Assessing and mapping vineyard water status variability using a miniaturized nir spectrophotometer from a moving vehicle


Context and purpose of the study – In the actual scenario of climate change, optimization of water usage is becoming critical in sustainable viticulture. Most of the current approaches to assess grapevine water status and drive irrigation scheduling are either destructive, time and labour consuming and monitor a small, limited number of plants. This work presents a novel methodology using a contactless, miniaturized, low-cost NIR spectrometer to monitor the vineyard water status variability from a moving vehicle, to provide reliable information towards precision irrigation.

Material and methods – Spectral measurements were acquired using a NIR micro spectrometer, operating in the 900–1900 nm range, from a ground vehicle moving at 3 km/h. Spectra acquisition was carried out on the northeast side of the canopy across six dates in 2021 season and five dates in 2022, in two VSP commercial vineyards of Vitis vinifera L. Tempranillo and Graciano in the Rioja Appellation Board (Spain). Grapevines were monitored at solar noon using stem water potential (Ψs) as reference indicator of plant water status. At each date, 36  and 27 measurements of Ψs were taken in the Tempranillo and Graciano vineyards, making a total of 396 and 297 data respectively. Partial least squares (PLS) regression and the Variable Importance in the Projection (VIP) method were used to build calibration and prediction models using the pooled data from the two seasons for each variety. Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was also applied to build simplified estimation models using 8 and 10 spectral bands with the highest VIP scores (always >1). Determination of coefficient (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were computed to assess model performance.

Results – Remarkable cross-validation models were built using the whole spectrum (117 wavelengths) with R2cv ranging from 0.62 to 0.80, and RMSECV between 0.115-0.138 MPa in Tempranillo and Graciano vineyards, respectively. With the aim of simplifying model building, the 8 and 10 spectral bands showing the highest VIP scores, with values above 1 in all instances, were selected to build MLR cross validation models of stem water potential. In both varieties MLR8 and MLR10 (MLR models built with 8 and 10 wavelenghts only respectively) yielded R2cv ranging from 0.45-0.59 and RMSECV ~ 0.156-0.171 MPa. Although lower performance was achieved with the simplified models they could still be utilized to classify and map the vineyard plots into three different water status zones, susceptible of precise, differentiated irrigation.


Publication date: June 21, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2023

Type: Article


Maria Paz DIAGO1,2*, Wenchao SHENG1, Ignacio BARRIO1,2, Fernando RUBIO-ORDOYO1, Juan FERNANDEZ-NOVALES1,2

1Department of Agriculture and Food Science, University of La Rioja, Madre de Dios 53, 26007 Logroño, Spain
2Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (Universidad de La Rioja, CSIC, Gobierno de La Rioja) Finca La Grajera, Ctra. Burgos Km 13, 26007 Logroño, Spain

Contact the author*


water stress, stem water potential, proximal sensing, partial least squares, multiple linear regression


GiESCO | GIESCO 2023 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Effect of foliar application of Ca, Si and their combination on grape volatile composition

Calcium (Ca) is an important nutrient for plants which plays key signaling and structural roles. It has been observed that exogenous Ca application favors the pectin accumulation and inhibition of polygalacturonase enzymes, minimizing fruit spoilage. Silicon (Si) is a non-essential element which has been found to be beneficial for improving crop yield and quality, as well as plant tolerance to diverse abiotic and biotic stress factors. The effect of Si supply to grapevine has been assessed in few investigations, which reported positive changes in grape quality and must composition.

Late winter pruning induces a maturity delay under temperature-increased conditions in cv. Merlot from Chile

Chile is considered vulnerable to climate change; and these phenomena affect several mechanisms in the grape physiology and quality. The global temperature increase affects sugar contents, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in grapes, producing an imbalance maturity. In this sense, an alternative to reduce the impact is to perform pruning after vine budburst, known as “Late Pruning” (LP).

Effect of two water deficit regimes on the agronomic response of 12 grapevine varieties cultivated in a semi-arid climate

The Mediterranean basin is one of the most vulnerable regions to Climate Change effects. According to unanimous forecasts, the vineyards of Castilla-La Mancha will be among the most adversely affected by rising temperatures and water scarcity during the vine’s vegetative period. One potential strategy to mitigate the negative impacts of these changes involves the identification of grapevine varieties with superior water use efficiency, while ensuring satisfactory yields and grape quality.

Influence of irrigation frequency on berry phenolic composition of red grape varieties cultivated in four spanish wine-growing regions

The global warming phenomenon involves the frequency of extreme meteorological events accompanied by a change in rainfall distribution. Irrigation frequency (IF) affects the spatial and temporal soil water distribution but its effects on the phenolic composition of the grape have been scarcely studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of four deficit irrigation frequencies of 30 % ETo: one irrigation per day (T01), two irrigations per week (T03), one irrigation per week (T07) and one irrigation every two weeks (T15) on berry phenolic composition at harvest.

Response of red grape varieties irrigated during the summer to water availability at the end of winter in four Spanish wine-growing regions: berry phenolic composition

Water availability is the most limiting factor for vineyard productivity under Mediterranean conditions. Due to the effects caused by the current climate change, wine-growing regions may face serious soil moisture conservation problems, due to the lower water retention capacity of the soil and higher soil irradiation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil recharge irrigation in pre-sprouting and summer irrigation every week (30 % ETo) from the pea size state until the end of ripening (RP) compared to exclusively summer irrigation every week (R) in the same way that RP, on berry phenolic composition at harvest.