terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 GiESCO 2023 9 Vineyard nutrient budget and sampling protocols

Vineyard nutrient budget and sampling protocols

Abstract

Context and purpose of the study – Vineyard nutrient management is crucial for reaching production-specific quality standards, yet timely evaluation of nutrient status remains challenging. The existing sampling protocol of collecting vine tissue (leaves and/or petioles) at bloom or veraison is time-consuming. Additionally, this sampling practice is too late for in-season fertilizer applications (e.g. N is applied well before bloom). Therefore alternative early-season protocols are necessary to predict the vine nutrient demand for the upcoming season.  The main goals of this project are to 1) optimize existing tissue sampling protocols; 2) determine the amount of nutrients removed at the end of the growing season.

Material and methods – Field trials were initiated in late summer 2020, and conducted through 2022 in commercial, drip-irrigated ownrooted vineyard blocks in arid eastern Washington. Three rates of K were applied in Chardonnay, and three and two rates of N were applied in Syrah and Concord, respectively. Dormant canes; whole shoots at the 5-6-leaf stage; leaves (blades and petioles) at bloom and veraison; and whole clusters at harvest were collected from each block for macro- and micronutrient analysis. Yield components and fruit composition were determined at harvest, and pruning weights were collected in winter. Vines were covered with bird nets after harvest, and leaves were collected after the first freeze for nutrient analysis. 

Results – Blade and petiole nutrient concentrations were not well correlated with higher N concentrations and lower K concentrations in blades than petioles. The P and K concentrations in early-season shoots correlated with those in blades and petioles at bloom. There was no difference in yield components between the treatments in any vineyard block. Fruit harvest and leaf fall removed significant amounts of nutrients, depending on variety, crop yield, and vintage. On average across all varieties, 22 kg/ha of N, 5 kg/ha of P, 50kg/ha of K and 3 kg/ha of Mg were removed at harvest and 6.4 kg/ha of N, 0.5 kg/ha of P, 2.9 kg/ha of K and 2.6 kg/ha of Mg were removed with leaves at leaf fall. Leaf fall constitutes an important loss of nutrients in addition to the loss in the harvested fruit. If the dead leaves remain in the vineyard, those nutrients may be available for vine uptake in subsequent growing seasons. However, if the nutrients are lost, they must be replaced through fertilizer addition to prevent the gradual buildup of nutrient deficiency and sustain vineyard productivity.

DOI:

Publication date: June 22, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Nataliya SHCHERBATYUK1*, Pierre DAVADANT1, Markus KELLER1

1Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, Washington State University, Prosser, WA, USA

Contact the author*

Keywords

grapevine nutrition, vineyard nutrient management, nutrient sampling protocol

Tags

GiESCO | GIESCO 2023 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Impact of some agronomic practices on grape skins anthocyanin content

Wine colour is the first quality characteristic to be assessed, especially regarding red wines. Anthocyanins are very well known to be the main responsible compounds for red wine colour. Red cultivars can synthesize and accumulate anthocyanins in berry skin to express their colour. However, anthocyanin accumulation is often influenced by a series of factors, such as genetic regulation, phytohormones, environmental conditions and viticultural management.

Characterization of Glycosidically Bound Aroma Compounds of País cv. grapes of different Chilean zones

Úbeda-Aguilera, C., a Callejón, R. M., b Peña-Neira, A c. a Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile b Área de Nutrición y Bromatología. Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad de Sevilla. C/ P. García González nº 2, E- 41012. Sevilla. Spain c Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile País grape has been estimated to arrive to Chile almost 500 years ago, being the first strain grown in this country. Traditionally, this grape has been used to mix with other varieties, to produce poor quality wines, but today is beginning to be used in the production of high quality wines. However, very little is known about the chemical characteristics of this variety.

Ageing of Sauvignon Blanc white wines with Specific Inactivated Dry Yeasts: Effect on physical and chemical characteristics

Del Barrio-Galán, R.a, b, Gómez-Parrini, A.a, Peña-Neira, A.b a Lallemand Inc. Chile y Compañía Limitada, Rosario Norte 407, piso 6, Las condes, Santiago, Chile b Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile It is well known that polysaccharides, mainly mannoproteins, play an important role on physical, chemical and sensory quality of wines. The ageing of white wines on lees is used in order to release higher amounts of polysaccharides by the autolytic processes in order to obtain higher-quality wines. However, this technique is too slow, because the temperature and pH conditions are not the most suitable for this process. In addition, it can also involve certain disadvantages such as a greater demand on winery resources, a longer period of wine storage, the appearance of reduction notes and some microbiological alterations.

Effect of ageing with Specific Inactivated Dry Yeasts on the volatile composition of Sauvignon Blanc and Carménère wines

Úbeda-Aguilera, C a, b, Peña-Neira, A.b Del Barrio-Galán, R.b, c a Biomedical Sciences Institute, Science Faculty, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile. b Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile c Lallemand Inc. Chile y Compañía Limitada, Rosario Norte 407, piso 6, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile The wine is a complex matrix made up of several compounds which can interact among themselves throughout the wine ageing process, thereby modifying their sensorial characteristics. It is well known that during ageing of wines on lees, polysaccharides (mainly mannoproteins) can be released and can interact with the aromatic fraction modifying its volatility.

New molecular evidence of wine yeast-bacteria interaction unraveled by untargeted metabolomic profiling

Bacterial malolactic fermentation (MLF) has a considerable impact on wine quality. The yeast strain used for primary fermentation can consistently stimulate (MLF+ phenotype) or inhibit (MLF- phenotype) malolactic bacteria and the MLF process as a function of numerous winemaking practices, but the molecular evidence behind still remains a mystery. In this study, such evidence was elucidated by the direct comparison of extracellular metabolic profiles of MLF+ and MLF- yeast phenotypes. Untargeted metabolomics combining ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR-MS analysis, powerful machine learning methods and a comprehensive wine metabolite database, discovered around 800 putative biomarkers and 2500 unknown masses involved in phenotypic distinction.