terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 How to improve the success of dead vine replacement: insights into the impacts of young plant‘s environment 

How to improve the success of dead vine replacement: insights into the impacts of young plant‘s environment 

Abstract

Context and purpose of the study – Grapevine faces multiple biotic and/or abiotic stresses, which are interrelated. Depending on their incidence, they can have a negative impact on the development and production of the plant, but also on its longevity, leading to vine dieback. One of the consequences of vine dieback on production is the increased replacement rate of dead or missing vines within a parcel. Replacements can be very costly and time consuming for the vinegrower, especially because success (i.e. defined by the survival and growth of the young vine planted in place of the dead plant) is not guaranteed every year. Factors influencing the success of this replacement can be grouped into two main categories: the plant environment and the vinegrower practices. The aim of this study was to quantify plant mortality after such a replacement in different vineyards over several years, and the influence of the plant’s environment on this mortality

Material and methods – For four years, plants replacements were carried out in production vineyards. A set of 83 batches distributed in 44 parcels corresponding to more than 7500 replacement plants were monitored. The year and density of planting, rootstock, and  variety as well as soil type and maintenance were recorded for each parcel. Plant survival was monitored twice a year.

Results – As the plants were coming into production, the average survival rate was 83% of the initial batches of plantings. However, survival rates varied greatly depending on plot characteristics. Multi-year monitoring of plant survival showed that 60% of mortality occurred within the year following plant replacement. Over the study period, the average first-year mortality rate of replaced plants ranged from 7.4 to 17.1%, highlighting a vintage effect. In the second and third years after replacement, mortality was found to be higher in late winter than during the growing season. Thus, one hypotheses proposed is that the reserve status of the plant material may be more critical to the survival of these plants than the impacts of tillage or lack of water during the growing season. Nevertheless, mortality during growing season accounted for one-third of total mortality in a given year, which could potentially be reduced through better care of the young plants. Statistical analyses revealed no variety effect of and no date of the first plantation effect of the initial parcel while a significant soil effect was detected. This experimental monitoring should make it possible to provide answers on the impact of the environment of the replacement plant on its survival over time, its development and its production. These results highlight perspectives to improve the survival of replacement plants in vineyards.

DOI:

Publication date: July 5, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Coralie DEWASME1*, Elisa MARGUERIT1, Severine MARY2, Lauren INCHBOARD2, Guillaume DARRIEUTORT2, Philippe VIVIN1, Virginie LAUVERGEAT1

1EGFV, Univ. Bordeaux, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRAE, ISVV, F-33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2Vitinnov, Bordeaux-Sciences Agro, ISVV, 33170 Gradignan France

Contact the author*

Keywords

grapevine, survival, mortality, stresses, dieback

Tags

GiESCO | GIESCO 2023 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Tomatoes and Grapes: berry fruits with a (bright) biotech future?

Tomatoes and Grapes are berries that are genetically related and therefore at least partially their developmental pathways leading to a fleshy fruit should share some of the components. In a sense knowledge obtained from the model plant tomato could be useful for grape and conversely the more amenable tomato can be used to test some hypothesis that would be difficult to obtain in grape. Research in my lab and other labs have led to a better understanding of the molecular genetics mechanisms underlying fruit development and ripening in tomato and more specifically those related to metabolite accumulation that may lead to changes in fruit nutritional and flavor composition. This research has involved the use of genetic variability in natural population, but also biparental population and genetically engineered lines that are easy to develop in tomato tomato but not in grape. NGTs also can be easily implemented in tomato to not only speed up the gene-to-trait but also develop new tomato varieties.

Methodological advances in relating deep root activity to whole vine physiology

Full understanding of grapevine responses to variable soil resources requires
assessing the grapevine root system. Grapevine root systems are expansive and examining deep roots (i.e., >40 cm)
is particularly important in conditions where grapevines increase reliance on deep soil resources, such as drought
or plant competition. Traditional methods of assessing roots rely on morphological traits associated specific
functions (e.g., root color, diameter, length), while recent methodological advances allow for estimating root
function more directly (e.g., omics). Yet, the potential of applying refined methods remains underexplored for roots
at deep depths.

NACs intra-family hierarchical transcriptional regulatory network orchestrating grape berry ripening

Considering that global warming is changing berry ripening timing and progression, uncovering the molecular mechanisms and identifying key regulators governing berry ripening could provide important tools in maintaining high quality grapes and wine. NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) transcription factors represent an interesting family due to their key role in the developmental processes control, such as fruit-ripening-associated genes expression, and in the regulation of multiple stress responses. Between the 74 NAC family members, we selected 12 of them as putative regulators of berry ripening: NAC01, NAC03, NAC05, NAC11, NAC13, NAC17, NAC18, NAC26, NAC33, NAC37, NAC60 and NAC61.

Molecular characterization of a variegated grapevine mutant cv Bruce’s Sport

Variegation, a frequently observed trait in plants, is characterized by the occurrence of white or discoloured plant tissue. This phenomenon is attributed to genetic mosaicism or chimerism, potentially impacting the epidermal (L1) and subepidermal (L2) cell layers. In grapevine, variegation manifests as white or paler leaf, flower, or berry tissues, often leading to stunted growth and impeded development. Despite its prevalence, variegation in grapevines remains understudied.

Phenotypical impact of a floral somatic mutation in the cultivar Listán Prieto

The accession Criolla Chica Nº2 (CCN2) is catalogued as a floral mutation of cultivar Criolla Chica (synonym for cv. Listán Prieto). Contrary to what is observed in hermaphrodite-cultivated varieties like Criolla Chica, CCN2 exhibits a prevalence of masculinized flowers. Aiming to study the incidence and phenotypical implications of this mutation, CCN2 plants were deeply studied using Criolla Chica ‘Ballista’ (CCBA) as control plants. For each CCN2 plant, two inflorescences per shoot were sampled and segmented into proximal, mid and distal positions, relative to the pedicel. Flowers were observed through magnifying lens and classified according to OIV151 descriptor.