terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 Biomass carbon and nitrogen input from cover crops in an irrigated vineyard in Okanagan Valley, Canada

Biomass carbon and nitrogen input from cover crops in an irrigated vineyard in Okanagan Valley, Canada

Abstract

Context and purpose of the study – The use of cover crops in vineyards has been encouraged by positive effects on wine grape yield and sensory attributes, and improved soil function. This study examined the efficacy of three alleyway and three undervine cover crop treatments in an organic vineyard in the semiarid Okanagan Valley, Canada in 2021.

Material and methods – Superior cover crop species were selected based on previous greenhouse and field species screening experiments. Three alleyway and three undervine cover crop mixtures were established in 2021. The vineyard was equipped with drip lines for irrigating vine rows, and undercanopy sprinklers for irrigating alleys. The dry biomass of cover crops and weeds, and carbon and nitrogen accumulation of the cover crop treatments were measured in the 2021 season and are reported here.

Results – Alley cover crops produced different dry biomass and biomass carbon content in order of ryegrass+tillage radish+white clover (1656 kg/ha and 650 kg C/ha) > fescue+white clover (952 kg/ha and 393 kg C/ha) > winter rye+hairy vetch (431 kg/ha and 184 kg C/ha). The proportion of cover crops dry biomass to total groundcover biomass in alleys followed a similar order. The tissue nitrogen content of the cover crops in alleys was the greatest in ryegrass+tillage radish+white clover (45 kg N/ha) and the lowest in winter rye+hairy vetch (15 kg N/ha).  Total alley dry biomass nitrogen content (cover crops + weeds) was between 50 to 65 kg/ha in cover crops plots, which was significantly greater compared to control (weeds only) plots with nitrogen content of 34 kg/ha. Undervine cover crops produced different dry biomass and biomass carbon content in order of Ladino white clover (2029 kg/ha and 839 kg C/ha) ≥ lentil (1409 kg/ha and 603 kg C/ha) > annual ryegrass+birdsfoot trefoil (155 kg/ha and 64 kg C/ha). The tissue nitrogen content in undervine cover crops was the greatest in Ladino white clover (67 kg N/ha) followed by lentil (36 kg/ha) and annual ryegrass+birdsfoot trefoil (2.6 kg N/ha).  Ladino white clover was more effective in suppressing the weeds (55% total biomass) followed by winter lentil (30% total biomass) and annualryegrass+birdsfoot trefoil (4% total biomass) under the vines. We concluded that white clover, tillage radish, and perennial ryegrassmixture in alleys and Ladino white clover under vines were best suited to irrigated vineyards in this region.

DOI:

Publication date: July 5, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Mehdi SHARIFI1*, Jamie YEARLEY2, Melanie JONES2

1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Summerland, British Columbia, Canada
2University of British Columbia Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada

Contact the author*

Keywords

alley, cover crops, ground vegetation management, undervine

Tags

GiESCO | GIESCO 2023 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Impact of some agronomic practices on grape skins anthocyanin content

Wine colour is the first quality characteristic to be assessed, especially regarding red wines. Anthocyanins are very well known to be the main responsible compounds for red wine colour. Red cultivars can synthesize and accumulate anthocyanins in berry skin to express their colour. However, anthocyanin accumulation is often influenced by a series of factors, such as genetic regulation, phytohormones, environmental conditions and viticultural management.

Characterization of Glycosidically Bound Aroma Compounds of País cv. grapes of different Chilean zones

Úbeda-Aguilera, C., a Callejón, R. M., b Peña-Neira, A c. a Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile b Área de Nutrición y Bromatología. Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad de Sevilla. C/ P. García González nº 2, E- 41012. Sevilla. Spain c Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile País grape has been estimated to arrive to Chile almost 500 years ago, being the first strain grown in this country. Traditionally, this grape has been used to mix with other varieties, to produce poor quality wines, but today is beginning to be used in the production of high quality wines. However, very little is known about the chemical characteristics of this variety.

Ageing of Sauvignon Blanc white wines with Specific Inactivated Dry Yeasts: Effect on physical and chemical characteristics

Del Barrio-Galán, R.a, b, Gómez-Parrini, A.a, Peña-Neira, A.b a Lallemand Inc. Chile y Compañía Limitada, Rosario Norte 407, piso 6, Las condes, Santiago, Chile b Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile It is well known that polysaccharides, mainly mannoproteins, play an important role on physical, chemical and sensory quality of wines. The ageing of white wines on lees is used in order to release higher amounts of polysaccharides by the autolytic processes in order to obtain higher-quality wines. However, this technique is too slow, because the temperature and pH conditions are not the most suitable for this process. In addition, it can also involve certain disadvantages such as a greater demand on winery resources, a longer period of wine storage, the appearance of reduction notes and some microbiological alterations.

Effect of ageing with Specific Inactivated Dry Yeasts on the volatile composition of Sauvignon Blanc and Carménère wines

Úbeda-Aguilera, C a, b, Peña-Neira, A.b Del Barrio-Galán, R.b, c a Biomedical Sciences Institute, Science Faculty, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Chile. b Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Post Office Box 1004, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile c Lallemand Inc. Chile y Compañía Limitada, Rosario Norte 407, piso 6, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile The wine is a complex matrix made up of several compounds which can interact among themselves throughout the wine ageing process, thereby modifying their sensorial characteristics. It is well known that during ageing of wines on lees, polysaccharides (mainly mannoproteins) can be released and can interact with the aromatic fraction modifying its volatility.

New molecular evidence of wine yeast-bacteria interaction unraveled by untargeted metabolomic profiling

Bacterial malolactic fermentation (MLF) has a considerable impact on wine quality. The yeast strain used for primary fermentation can consistently stimulate (MLF+ phenotype) or inhibit (MLF- phenotype) malolactic bacteria and the MLF process as a function of numerous winemaking practices, but the molecular evidence behind still remains a mystery. In this study, such evidence was elucidated by the direct comparison of extracellular metabolic profiles of MLF+ and MLF- yeast phenotypes. Untargeted metabolomics combining ultrahigh-resolution FT-ICR-MS analysis, powerful machine learning methods and a comprehensive wine metabolite database, discovered around 800 putative biomarkers and 2500 unknown masses involved in phenotypic distinction.