terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 THE ODORIFEROUS VOLATILE CHEMICALS BEHIND THE OXIDATIVE AROMA DEGRADATION OF SPANISH RED WINES

THE ODORIFEROUS VOLATILE CHEMICALS BEHIND THE OXIDATIVE AROMA DEGRADATION OF SPANISH RED WINES

Abstract

It is a well-established fact that premature oxidation is noxious for wine aromatic quality and longevity. Although some oxidation-related aroma molecules have been previously identified, there are not works carrying out systematic research about the changes in the profiles of odour-active volatiles during wine oxidation.

Different types of wines in terms of region, grape variety, oak aging and price were subjected to an oxidative aging procedure, sensory analysis, gas-chromatography olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Sensory notes such as dried fruit, cooked vegetables or liquorice-alcohol were oxidation-related. The GCO analysis of the samples with highest oxidation notes, revealed highest levels of four odour zones, which were identified in a dual system GC-O/FID-GC-O/MS as 1,1-diethoxyethane (liquor, strawberry, sweet), 2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (fruity, solvent), 3-methylbutanal (solvent, yeasty) and methional (boiled potato, cooked vegetables).

The two aldehydes were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). together with isobutanal, 2-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde. All them were already present in significant amounts before oxidation. However, as they were forming odourless reversible adducts with SO₂ (α-hydroxyalkylsulphonates)1 they were initially non-odour active. However, as free SO₂ disappeared during oxidation² they become odour-active in oxidized samples. Additional quantities were formed during oxidation, most likely by the reaction of wine dicarbonyls with the amino acid precursors. This additional formation was particularly relevant for 2-methylbutanal, followed by methional and isobutanal, while for phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methylbutanal, quantities formed were smaller than those originally present. These results confirm that both, pre-existent levels of Strecker aldehydes and the ability to form them during oxidation, are relevant in wine stability.

Acetals were determined by L-L microextraction followed by GC-MS. Results revealed that during oxidation there is a clear increment on the levels of acetals formed from the condensation of acetaldehyde with ethanol, 2,3-butanediol and glycerol; leading to 1,1-diethoxyethane, 2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolane and several heterocyclic acetals, respectively. Levels formed were high enough to be odour-active. This suggests that the formation of acetals is an essential part of the sensory changes noted during wine oxidation.

 

1. L.C. de Azevedo et al., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2007, 55 (21)
2. M. Bueno, V. Carrascón & V.Ferreira. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2016, 64 (3)

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

A. M. Aragón-Capone¹, A. de-la-Fuente-Blanco¹, M.P. Saenz-Navajas², V.Ferreira¹, M.Bueno¹
1. Laboratorio de Análisis del Aroma y Enología (LAAE), Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Institu-to Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2) (UNIZAR-CITA).Associated to Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y del Vino (ICVV)(UR-CSIC-GR), c/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
2. Instituto de Ciencias de la Vid y el Vino (ICVV) (UR-CSIC-GR), Departamento de Enología, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain.

Contact the author*

Keywords

Chemosensory analysis, Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), Oxidative aging, Wine’s longevity

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

EFFECTS OF BIODYNAMIC VINEYARD MANAGEMENT ON GRAPE RIPENING MECHANISMS

Biodynamic agriculture, founded in 1924 by Rudolph Steiner, is a form of organic agriculture. Through a holistic approach, biodynamic agriculture seeks to preserve the diversity of agriculture and the existing interactions between the mineral world and the different components of the organic world. Biodynamic grape production involves the use of composts, herbal teas and mineral preparations such as 500, 501 and CBMT.
Several scientific studies have provided evidence on the effects of biodynamic farming on the soil, the plant and the wine. Numerous empirical opinions of wine growers support the existence of differences brought by such a management.

DOES LIGNIN AN ACCEPTABLE MARKER OF GRAPESEED MATURATION AND QUALITY?

Usually the winemaker consider polyphenols from the grape berry as an actor of the wine quality. There are frequently consider as a marker of grape maturity. It is commonly known that winemaker consider tannins and anthocyanins as main polyphenol actors for winemaking practices and wine quality. Here we will focus on the characterisation of lignins in grape seeds. Previous studies suggest that the seed is lignified [1], which could explain the change in colour of the seed when it reaches maturity and thus provide a reliable indicator for describing the maturity stage in the seed.

THE IMPACT OF NON-SACCHAROMYCES YEASTS ON THE WHITE WINE QUALITY

Selected strains of non-Saccharomyces yeasts showed a positive effect on sensory characteristics and aromatic complexity of wine. A sequential microbial culture of non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae species is usually inoculated due to poorer fermentability of non-Saccharomyces species. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in the production of white wines. We evaluated how individual combinations of sequential inoculations of non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae species affect the aromatic compounds (volatile thiols and esters) and sensory characteristics of the wines.

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECT ON POLYPHENOLS OF GRIGNOLINO GRAPES (VITIS VINIFERA L.) IN HILLY ENVIRONMENT

Current changes of ecoclimatic indicators may cause significant variation in grapevine phenology and grape ripening. Climate change modifies several abiotic factors (e.g. temperature, sunlight radiation, water availability) during the grapevine growth cycle, having a direct impact on the phenological stages of the grapevine, modulating the metabolic profile of berries and activating the synthesis and accumulation of diverse compounds in the skin of berries, with consequences on the composition of the grapes.
The influence exerted by different meteorological conditions, during three consecutive years (2020-2022) on secondary metabolites such as the polyphenolic profile of Grignolino grapes was investigated. The samples were collected from three vineyards characterized by different microclimatic conditions mainly related to the vineyard aspect and to a different age of the plants.

EXTRACTIBLE COMPOUNDS FROM MICROAGGLOMERATED CORK STOPPERS

After bottling, the wine continues to evolve during storage. The choice of the stopper is an important factor in this evolution. In addition to the oxygen permeability of the closure, the migration of stopper compounds into the wine can also have an impact on the wine organoleptic properties. Many studies have shown that transfers of volatile compounds from the stoppers into the wine can happen depending on the type of closure used (1). Moreover, when cork-made stoppers are used, the migration of phenolic compounds from the stopper into the wine can also occur (2, 3).