terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 VOLATILE AND GLYCOSYLATED MARKERS OF SMOKE IMPACT: EVOLUTION IN BOTTLED WINE

VOLATILE AND GLYCOSYLATED MARKERS OF SMOKE IMPACT: EVOLUTION IN BOTTLED WINE

Abstract

Smoke impact in wines is caused by a wide range of volatile phenols found in wildfire smoke. These compounds are absorbed and accumulate in berries, where they may also become glycosylated. Both volatile and glycosylated forms eventually end up in wine where they can cause off-flavors. The impact on wine aroma is mainly attributed to volatile phenols, while in-mouth hydrolysis of glycosylated forms may be responsible for long-lasting “ashy” aftertastes (1).

In order to assess smoke impact, a selection of volatile and glycosylated phenols is proposed, mainly based on research from Australia (2, 3). It includes the volatile phenols guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, ortho-, meta- and para- cresol, phenol, syringol, and 4-methylsyringol, as well as their glycosylated forms guaiacol rutinoside, 4-methylguaiacol rutinoside, cresol rutinoside, phenol rutinoside, syringol gen-tiobioside, and 4-methylsyringol gentiobioside. The accurate and reproducible measurement of these compounds is now possible, due to the commercial availability of standards and isotopic analogues.

In this study, we investigated the stability of these markers in bottled wines from smoke-exposed grapes, during a two-year timeframe. Wines monitored were a Chenin Blanc and a Chardonnay (whites), a Grenache (rosé), two Cabernet Sauvignons, a Zinfandel and a Grenache (reds).

No significant increases in guaiacol were observed in the white and rosé wines. Slight increases (2-3 μg/L) were observed in red wines, with the exception of the Pinot Noir (9 μg/L). Non-significant to slight increases were observed for phenol, except in the Zinfandel (10 μg/L). Large increases were observed for syringol in red wines only, especially in Cabernet Sauvignons (up to 60 μg/L). No significant increases were observed for the other volatile phenols measured.

All measured glycosylated markers were stable, in all wines. Therefore, increases in volatile phenols, when they happened, were not explained by the hydrolysis of corresponding glycosylated forms measured.

The observed increases in guaiacol and syringol, as well as the stability of the glycosylated forms measured, are consistent with results from a previous study (4). The stability of glycosylated markers makes them relevant in identifying wines from smoke exposed grapes, possibly for many years after bottling. A limitation is that some smoke impacted wines might show normal or even non-detectable levels of these glycosylated markers.

 

1. Christine M. Mayr, Mango Parker, Gayle A. Baldock, Cory A. Black, Kevin H. Pardon, Patricia O. Williamson, Markus J. Herderich, and I. Leigh Francis.  2014. Determination of the Importance of In-Mouth Release of Volatile Phenol Glycoconjugates to the Flavor of Smoke-Tainted Wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry  62 (11), 2327-2336
2. Hayasaka, Y., Parker, M., Baldock, G.A., Pardon, K.H., Black, C.A., Jeffery, D.W. and Herderich, M.J. (2013) Assessing the impact of smoke exposure in grapes: development and validation of a HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitative analysis of smoke derived phenolic glycosides in grapes and wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61, 25–33.
3. Krstic, M.P., Johnson, D.L. and Herderich, M.J. (2015) Review of smoke taint in wine: smoke-derived volatile phenols and their glycosidic metabolites in grapes and vines as biomarkers for smoke exposure and their role in the sensory perception of smoke taint. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 21, 537–553.
4. Renata Ristic R., Lieke van der Hulst L., Dimitra L. Capone, and Kerry L. Wilkinson. Impact of Bottle Aging on Smoke-Tainted Wines from Different Grape Cultivars. 2017.
5. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65 (20), 4146-4152

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Eric Hervé¹, Darren Gullick¹ , Azeem Hasan¹, Anindya Pradhan¹, Gordon Burns¹

1. ETS Laboratories, 899 Adams St. Suite A, St. Helena, CA 94574, USA

Contact the author*

Keywords

smoke impact, volatile phenols, glycosylated phenols

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

THE FLAVANOL PROFILE OF SKIN, SEED, WINES, AND POMACE ARE CHARACTERISTIC OF EACH TYPOLOGY AND CONTRIBUTES TO UNDERSTAND THE FLAVAN- 3-OLS EXTRACTION DURING RED WINEMAKING

Wine flavanols are extracted from grape skin and seeds along red winemaking. Potentially, eight flavan-3-ol subunits may be present as monomers or as tannins constituents, being these catechin, epicathechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin end the gallates of the mentioned units. In this work the flavanol profiles of grape skins and seeds before (grapes) and after (pomace) red winemaking were studied together with the one in the corresponding wines. The trials were made over two vintages in Vitis vinifera cv. Tannat, Syrah and Marselan from Uruguay.

HYDROXYTYROSOL PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENT YEAST STRAINS: SACCHAROMYCES AND NON-SACCHAROMYCES AND THE RELATION WITH THE NITROGEN CONSUMPTION

Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic compound with extensive bioactive properties. It is present in olives, olive oil and wines. Its occurrence in wines is partly due to yeast synthetise tyrosol from tyrosine by the Ehrlich pathway, which is subsequently hydroxylated to .
The aim of the present work is to study how different yeast strains can influence in the HT production and, how the different nitrogen consumption of each strain can interfere the production of bioactive compounds.

FLOW CYTOMETRY, A POWERFUL AND SUSTAINABLE METHOD WITH MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS IN ENOLOGY

Flow cytometry (FCM) is a powerful technique allowing the detection, characterization and quantification of microbial populations in different fields of application (medical environment, food industry, enology, etc.). Depending on the fluorescent markers and specific probes used, FCM provides information on the physiological state of the cell and allows the quantification of a microorganism of interest within a mixed population. For 15 years, the enological sector has shown growing interest in this technique, which is now used to determine the populations present (of interest or spoilage) and the physiological state of microorganisms at the different stages of winemaking.

OENOLOGICAL STRATEGIES FOR THE REMOVAL OF PINKING IN WHITE WINE

The pinking of in white wine is the turning of color from yellow to salmon hue. White wines obtained from certain grape varieties (e.g. Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, Riesling, Trebbiano di Lugana) showed to be susceptible to pinking [1] that has been evaluated by an assay providing the addition of hydrogen peroxide. Even if its appearance does not seem to affect the sensory properties [2], strategies are necessary for its removal. Nowadays, the treatment with polyvinylpolipirroline (PVPP) was reported to significantly decrease the pink color [3].

AROMA ASSESSMENT OF COMMERCIAL SFORZATO DI VALTELLINA WINES BYINSTRUMENTAL AND SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

Sforzato di Valtellina DOCG is a special dry red wine produced from partially dehydrated Nebbiolo wine-grapes growing in the Rhaetian Alps valley of Valtellina (Lombardy, Italy). Valtellina terraced vineyards are located at an altitude of 350–800 m according to ‘heroic’ viticulture on steep slopes. The harvested grape bunches are naturally dehydrated indoors, where a slow and continuous withering occurs (about 20% w/w of weight loss), until at least 1st December when the grapes reach the desired sugar content and can be processed following a normal winemaking with maceration.