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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 VOLATILE AND GLYCOSYLATED MARKERS OF SMOKE IMPACT: EVOLUTION IN BOTTLED WINE

VOLATILE AND GLYCOSYLATED MARKERS OF SMOKE IMPACT: EVOLUTION IN BOTTLED WINE

Abstract

Smoke impact in wines is caused by a wide range of volatile phenols found in wildfire smoke. These compounds are absorbed and accumulate in berries, where they may also become glycosylated. Both volatile and glycosylated forms eventually end up in wine where they can cause off-flavors. The impact on wine aroma is mainly attributed to volatile phenols, while in-mouth hydrolysis of glycosylated forms may be responsible for long-lasting “ashy” aftertastes (1).

In order to assess smoke impact, a selection of volatile and glycosylated phenols is proposed, mainly based on research from Australia (2, 3). It includes the volatile phenols guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, ortho-, meta- and para- cresol, phenol, syringol, and 4-methylsyringol, as well as their glycosylated forms guaiacol rutinoside, 4-methylguaiacol rutinoside, cresol rutinoside, phenol rutinoside, syringol gen-tiobioside, and 4-methylsyringol gentiobioside. The accurate and reproducible measurement of these compounds is now possible, due to the commercial availability of standards and isotopic analogues.

In this study, we investigated the stability of these markers in bottled wines from smoke-exposed grapes, during a two-year timeframe. Wines monitored were a Chenin Blanc and a Chardonnay (whites), a Grenache (rosé), two Cabernet Sauvignons, a Zinfandel and a Grenache (reds).

No significant increases in guaiacol were observed in the white and rosé wines. Slight increases (2-3 μg/L) were observed in red wines, with the exception of the Pinot Noir (9 μg/L). Non-significant to slight increases were observed for phenol, except in the Zinfandel (10 μg/L). Large increases were observed for syringol in red wines only, especially in Cabernet Sauvignons (up to 60 μg/L). No significant increases were observed for the other volatile phenols measured.

All measured glycosylated markers were stable, in all wines. Therefore, increases in volatile phenols, when they happened, were not explained by the hydrolysis of corresponding glycosylated forms measured.

The observed increases in guaiacol and syringol, as well as the stability of the glycosylated forms measured, are consistent with results from a previous study (4). The stability of glycosylated markers makes them relevant in identifying wines from smoke exposed grapes, possibly for many years after bottling. A limitation is that some smoke impacted wines might show normal or even non-detectable levels of these glycosylated markers.

 

1. Christine M. Mayr, Mango Parker, Gayle A. Baldock, Cory A. Black, Kevin H. Pardon, Patricia O. Williamson, Markus J. Herderich, and I. Leigh Francis.  2014. Determination of the Importance of In-Mouth Release of Volatile Phenol Glycoconjugates to the Flavor of Smoke-Tainted Wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry  62 (11), 2327-2336
2. Hayasaka, Y., Parker, M., Baldock, G.A., Pardon, K.H., Black, C.A., Jeffery, D.W. and Herderich, M.J. (2013) Assessing the impact of smoke exposure in grapes: development and validation of a HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitative analysis of smoke derived phenolic glycosides in grapes and wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61, 25–33.
3. Krstic, M.P., Johnson, D.L. and Herderich, M.J. (2015) Review of smoke taint in wine: smoke-derived volatile phenols and their glycosidic metabolites in grapes and vines as biomarkers for smoke exposure and their role in the sensory perception of smoke taint. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 21, 537–553.
4. Renata Ristic R., Lieke van der Hulst L., Dimitra L. Capone, and Kerry L. Wilkinson. Impact of Bottle Aging on Smoke-Tainted Wines from Different Grape Cultivars. 2017.
5. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 65 (20), 4146-4152

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Poster

Authors

Eric Hervé¹, Darren Gullick¹ , Azeem Hasan¹, Anindya Pradhan¹, Gordon Burns¹

1. ETS Laboratories, 899 Adams St. Suite A, St. Helena, CA 94574, USA

Contact the author*

Keywords

smoke impact, volatile phenols, glycosylated phenols

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

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