Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Impact of non-fruity compounds on red wines fruity aromatic expression: the role of higher alcohols

Impact of non-fruity compounds on red wines fruity aromatic expression: the role of higher alcohols


A part, at least, of the fruity aroma of red wines is the consequence of perceptive interactions between various aromatic compounds, particularly ethyl esters and acetates, which may contribute to the perception of fruity aromas, specifically thanks to synergistic effects.1,2 The question of the indirect impact of non-fruity compounds on this particular aromatic expression has not yet been widely investigated. Among these compounds higher alcohols (HA) represent the main group, from a quantitative standpoint, of volatiles in many alcoholic beverages. Moreover, some bibliographic data suggested their contribution to the aromatic complexity by either increasing or masking flavors of wine, depending of their concentrations.3 Thus, we focused on the impact of five HA on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of five HA and the red wine fruity pool composed of thirteen ethyl esters and acetates, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. Sensory analysis highlighted the individual particular behavior of two HA, 3-methylbutan-1-ol and butan-1-ol, added individually at supra- and infra-threshold concentrations, respectively. Furthermore, these two compounds reduced the “olfactory threshold” of the fruity mixture as well as modified the qualitative perception of the fruity reconstitution. Adding five HA to different matrices and at various concentrations, representative of the diversity of wine composition, revealed a new remarkable perceptive interaction, and more precisely, a masking effect on fruity aromas perception. Their simultaneous addition to the model solution also modified the qualitative perception of the fruity reconstitution, particularly exacerbating the perception of butyric and solvent notes and attenuating the perception of fruity notes.4 This study, the first one devoted to the impact of HA on fruity aromatic expression, demonstrated that HA participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception of a wine fruity model mixture. These findings emphasized the importance of HA, a chemical family described for a long time which could therefore lead to a decrease of the perception of fruity notes in red wine. Thus the modulation of their levels during winemaking process is likely to influence indirectly the sensory quality of red wine. Keywords: red wine, perceptive interactions, higher alcohols, ethyl esters and acetates.

1. Pineau, B.; Barbe, J.-C.; Van Leeuwen, C.; Dubourdieu, D. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009, 57 (9), 3702–3708. 2. Lytra, G.; Tempere, S.; Le Floch, A.; de Revel, G.; Barbe, J.-C. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013, 61 (36), 8504–8513. 3. Ribéreau-Gayon, P.; Dubourdieu, D.; Donèche, B.; Lonvaud-Funel, A. Handbook of Enology – The chemistry of wine: Stabilisation and treatments, 6th ed.; Dunod; 2012; Vol. 1. 4. Cameleyre, M., Lytra, G., Tempère, S., Barbe, J-C. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2015. 63 (44), pp 9777–9788.

Publication date: May 17, 2024

Issue: Macrowine 2016

Type: Article


Jean-Christophe Barbe*, Georgia Lytra, Margaux Cameleyre, Sophie Tempere

*Université De Bordeaux

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IVES Conference Series | Macrowine | Macrowine 2016


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