Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Ageing of sweet wines: oxygen evolution according to bung and barrel type

Ageing of sweet wines: oxygen evolution according to bung and barrel type

Abstract

Barrel ageing is a crucial step in the wine process because it allows many changes to the wine as enrichment, colour stabilization, clarification and also a slow oxygenation. Effects of the oak barrel have to be known to prevent oxidation of the wine. The type of bung used during ageing is also a parameter to consider. Ageing sweet wines in barrel is a real challenge. These wines may need some oxygen at the beginning of ageing but they should be protected at the end of their maturation, to avoid oxidation. How to regulate oxygen intakes? How to measure it without opening the barrel? We have tried to answer these questions with an innovative assay. The trial was conducted with 4 modalities taking into account 2 bung types (a glass bung and a special bung made with elastomer) and 2 barrel types (a reference and a new barrel for white wines especially, called PFB). After filling the barrels with the same wine batch, oxygen is monitored all along the ageing with a specific sensor without opening the bung. 4 sensors per barrel are set. The oxygen measurements obtained in sweet wines aged in two barrel and bung types have been reported for the first time without opening the barrel, thanks to these specific sensors. Association of elastomeric bung and PFB barrel leads to lower oxygen intakes. The bung type is of major importance. Glass bungs allow oxygen entrance around 6 mg/L near the bung, whereas elastomeric bungs reduce this concentration to 1 to 3 mg/L only. Moreover the barrel type seems to enhance this impact because PFB barrels (made especially for white wines protection against oxidation) show higher decreases than reference barrels.

Publication date: May 17, 2024

Issue: Macrowine 2016

Type: Poster

Authors

Marie Mirabel*, Vincent Renouf

*Chêne & Cie

Contact the author

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Macrowine | Macrowine 2016

Citation

Related articles…

Red wine substituted esters involved in fruity aromatic expression: an enantiomeric approach to understand their sensory impact and their pathway formation

Among red wines ethyl esters, those from short hydroxylated and branched-chain aliphatic acids constitute a family with a particular behavior and sensory importance. They have been previously discussed in the literature [1] and recent studies have established that some of them were strongly involved in of red wines’ fruity aroma [2]. As some among them have an asymmetrical carbon atom, it seemed important to separate their different enantiomers to obtain an accurate assessment of their organoleptic impact. Three chiral esters have been identified, presenting alkyl and/or hydroxyle substituants: ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate.

Effect of intra‐vineyard ripeness variation on the efficiency of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction under winemaking conditions

Intra-vineyard variation grape berry ripening occurs within bunches, between bunches on the same vine and between vines. Although it is assumed that such variation also occurs at the grape berry cell wall level, no study to data has investigated in any depth. Here we have used a intra-vineyard panel design to investigate pooled bunches from six vines (per panel) in the context of a winemaking scenario. The dissected vineyard was harvested by separate panels, where each panel was then subjected to a standard winemaking procedure with or without the addition of three different enzyme preparations for maceration.

Using combinations of recombinant pectinases to elucidate the deconstruction of the polysaccharide‐rich grape cell wall during winemaking

The effectiveness of enzyme-mediated maceration processes in red winemaking relies on a clear picture of the target (berry cell wall structure) to achieve the optimum combination of specific enzymes to be used. However, we lack the information on both essential factors of the reaction (i.e. specific activities in commercial enzyme preparation and the cell wall structure of berry tissue). In this study, the different combinations of pure recombinant enzymes and the recently validated high throughput cell wall profiling tools were applied to extend our knowledge on the grape berry cell wall polymeric deconstruction during the winemaking following a combinatorial enzyme treatment design.

Influence of methyl jasmonate foliar application to vineyard on grape volatile composition over three consecutive vintages

An alternative to improve grape quality is the application to the vineyard of elicitors. Although these compounds were first used to increase resistance of plants against pathogens, it has been found that they are also able to induce mechanisms involved in the synthesis of phenolic compounds and some amino acids. However, researches about the influence of elicitors on grape volatile composition are scarcely. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the influence of methyl jasmonate (MeJ) foliar application on grape aroma composition over three consecutive vintages. MeJ was applied to Tempranillo grapevines at a concentration of 10 mM in 2013, 2014, and 2015 years. Control plants were sprayed with water.

Defining the mechanisms and impact of winemaking treatments on tannin and polysaccharides in red wine: recent progress in creating diverse styles

Tannin and polysaccharide concentration and composition is important in defining the texture of red wines, but can vary due to factors such as cultivar, region, grape ripeness, viticultural practices and winemaking techniques. However, the concentration and composition of these macromolecules is dependent not only on grape tannin and polysaccharide concentration and composition, but also their extractability and, in the case of polysaccharides, their formation by yeast. Through studies into the influence of grape maturity, winemaking and sensory impacts of red grape polysaccharides, seed and skin tannins, recent research in our laboratory has shown that the processes involved in the extraction of these macromolecules from grapes and their retention in wine are very complex.