OENO IVAS 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 OENO IVAS 9 OENO IVAS 2019 9 Grape and wine microorganisms: diversity and adaptation 9 Influence of cell-cell contact on yeast interactions and exo-metabolome

Influence of cell-cell contact on yeast interactions and exo-metabolome


Alcoholic fermentation is the main step for winemaking, mainly performed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. But other wine yeasts called non-Saccharomyces may contribute to alcoholic fermentation and modulate the wine aroma complexity. The recurrent problem with the use of these non-Saccharomyces yeasts is their trend to die off prematurely during alcoholic fermentation, leading to a lack of their interesting aromatic properties searched in the desired wine. This phenomenon appears to be mainly due to interactions with S. cerevisiae. These interactions are often negatives but remain unclear because of the species and strain specific response. Among the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, Lachancea thermotolerans is a wine yeast naturally found in grape must and well known as a great L-lactic acid producer and an aromatic molecules enhancer, but its behavior during alcoholic fermentation can be completely different in co-fermentation with S. cerevisiae in function of strain used. Thus, S. cerevisiae/L. thermotolerans couple was used to unravel interactions between these two species during alcoholic fermentation. Thanks to a modified S. cerevisiae strain expressing a GFP allowing discrimination between yeast populations, both yeast viability was monitored by flow cytometry in pure and sequential fermentations of grape must with or without cell-cell contact. This reveal a decrease in cell viability for S. cerevisiae in both conditions with a greater decrease in case of cell-cell contact. Investigating the nature of the interactions, our results demonstrate a competition between species for nitrogen compounds, oxygen and for the first time a competition for must sterols. Volatile compounds analysis revealed changes in sequential fermentations compared to pure fermentations and showed also that cell-cell contact modify yeast metabolism since the volatile compound profile was significantly different from sequential fermentation without cell-cell contact. Yeast metabolism modifications associated with cell-cell contact were confirmed further by analyzing the exo-metabolome of all fermentations by FT-ICR-MS analysis. These analyses show for the first time a specific metabolite production and quantitative metabolite changes linked to each fermentation condition. This study shows that cell-cell contact not only impact cell viability as already reported but deeply changes the yeast metabolism.


Publication date: June 23, 2020

Issue: OENO IVAS 2019

Type: Article


Clément Petitgonnet, Géraldine L.Klein, Chloé Roullier-Gall, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Beatriz Quintanilla-Casas, Stefania Vichi, Diane Julien-David, Hervé Alexandre

Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Research unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany 
Technische Universität Muenchen, Analytical Food Chemistry, Alte Akademie 10, 85354 Freising, Germany 
Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy Department, INSA – XaRTA (Catalonian Reference Network on Food Technology), University of Barcelona, Santa Coloma de Gramenet, Spain 
Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC UMR 7178, F-67000 Strasbourg, France

Contact the author


Interactions, Yeast, Flow cytometry, Exo-metabolome 


IVES Conference Series | OENO IVAS 2019


Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.