OENO IVAS 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 OENO IVAS 9 OENO IVAS 2019 9 Chemical and Biochemical reactions, including grape and wines microorganisms impact 9 Varietal differences between Shiraz and Cabernet sauvignon wines revealed by yeast metabolism

Varietal differences between Shiraz and Cabernet sauvignon wines revealed by yeast metabolism

Abstract

This study investigated if compositional differences between Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties could influence the production of yeast-derived compounds. This work was based on the analysis of 40 experimental red wines made in triplicate fermentations from grapes harvested from two consecutive vintages in New South Wales (Australia). Grapes were picked at three maturity stages using berry sugar accumulation as physiological indicator, from nine commercial vineyards located in three different climatic regions (temperate, temperate-warm and warm-hot). A range of 30 yeast-derived wine volatiles including esters and alcohols were quantified by HS/SPME-GC/MS. Ammonia, amino-acids and lipids were analysed in the corresponding grapes. The juice total soluble solids (°Brix) in addition to the wine alcohol and residual sugar levels were also measured. The influence of grape maturity on wine ester composition was also variety dependent, particularly for higher alcohol acetate and ethyl ester of branched acids. This study highlights that varietal differences observed in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines involve fermentation-derived compounds irrespective of the site (soil, climate, viticultural practices). 

DOI:

Publication date: June 23, 2020

Issue: OENO IVAS 2019

Type: Article

Authors

Guillaume Antalick, Katja Suklje, John Blackman, Campbell Meeks, Urska Vrhovsek, Alain Deloire, Leigh Schmidtke

Agricultural Institute of Slovenia 
Charles Sturt University, NWGIC 
Montpellier SupAgro 
Fondazione Edmund Mach 

Contact the author

Keywords

wine volatiles, berry maturity, yeast, metabolism

Tags

IVES Conference Series | OENO IVAS 2019

Citation

Related articles…

Vine environment interaction as a method for land viticultural evaluation. An experience in Friuli Venezia Giulia (N-E of Italy)

For a long time environment was known as one of the most important factors to characterize the quality of wines but at the same time it appears very difficult to distinguish inside the “terroir” the role of the single factor. These remarks partially explain why methods for viticultural evaluation are often quite different (Amerine et al., 1944; Antoniazzi et al., 1986; Asselin et al., 1987; Astruc et al., 1980; Bonfils, 1977; Boselli, 1991; Colugnati, 1990; Costantinescu, 1967; Costantini et al., 1987; Dutt et al., 1981; Falcetti et al., 1992; Fregoni et al., 1992; Hidalgo, 1980; Intrieri et al., 1988; Laville, 1990; Morlat et al., 1991; Scienza et al., 1990; Shubert et al., 1987; Turri et al., 1991).

Monitoring vineyard canopy structure by aerial and ground-based RGB and multispectral imagery analysis

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly used to monitor canopy structure and vineyard performance. Compared with traditional remote sensing platforms (e.g. aircraft and satellite), UAVs offer a higher operational flexibility and can acquire ultra-high resolution images in formats such as true color red, green and blue (RGB) and multispectral. Using photogrammetry, 3D vineyard models and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) maps can be created from UAV images and used to study the structure and health of grapevine canopies. However, there is a lack of comparison between UAV-based images and ground-based measurements, such as leaf area index (LAI) and canopy porosity.

Possible methods of adaptation to the effects of climate change in the Tokaj Wine Region 

Viticulture’s adaptation to the harmful effects of climate change is globally the biggest challenge of the near future. Short, extremely intensive rainfalls and longer periods of drought are getting more frequent in the Tokaj Wine Region, where the majority of the vineyards are cultivated on steep slopes. Hence, erosion has high risk, especially when combined with the loess-based soils on about ten percent of the region. The environmentally beneficial cover crop and mulch usage can effectively reduce the risk of erosion, according to research done by the Tokaj Wine Region Research Institute of Viticulture and Oenology.

Spatiotemporal patterns of chemical attributes in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards in Central California

Spatial variability of vine productivity in winegrapes is important to characterise as both yield and quality are relevant for the production of different wine styles and products. The objectives were to understand how patterns of variability of Cabernet Sauvignon fruit composition changed over time and space, how these patterns could be characterised with indirect measurements, and how spatial patterns of the variation in fruit compositional attributes can aid in improving management. Prior to the 2017 vintage, 125 data vines were distributed across each of four vineyards in the Lodi American Viticultural Area (AVA) of California. Each data vine was sampled at commercial harvest in 2017, 2018, and 2019. Yield components and fruit composition were measured at harvest for each data vine, and maps of yield and fruit composition were produced for eight ‘objective measures of fruit quality’: total anthocyanins, polymeric tannins, quercetin glycosides, malic acid, yeast assimilable nitrogen, β-damascenone, C6 alcohols and aldehydes, and 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine. Patterns of variation in anthocyanins and phenolic compounds were found to be most stable over time. Given this relative stability, management decisions focused on fruit quality could be based on zonal descriptions of anthocyanins or phenolics to increase profitability in some vineyards. In each vineyard, dormant season pruning weights and soil cores were collected at each location, elevation and soil apparent electrical conductivity surveys were completed, and remotely sensed imagery was captured by fixed wing aircraft and two satellite platforms at major phenological stages. The data collected were used to develop relationships among biophysical data, soil, imagery, and fruit composition. The standardised and aggregated samples from four vineyards over three seasons were included in the estimation of ‘common variograms’ to assess how this technique could aid growers in producing geostatistically rigorous maps of fruit composition variability without cumbersome, single season sampling efforts.

ADDITION OF OAK WOOD ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS: QUALITATIVE AND SENSORIAL EFFECTS FOR A WHITE WINE OF ALIGOTE

Wines matured in contact with wood are extremely popular with consumers all over the world. Oak wood allows the organoleptic characteristics of wine to be modified. Wines are enriched with volatile and non-volatile compounds extracted from the wood. The aromas extracted from oak wood contribute to the construction of the wine’s aromatic profile and the main polyphenols extracted can modify taste perceptions such as astringency and bitterness. All the compounds extracted from the wood thus contribute to the balance and quality of the wines.