Macrowine 2021
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Impact of addition of fumaric acid and glutathion at the end of alcoholic fermentation on Cabernet-Sauvignon wine

Impact of addition of fumaric acid and glutathion at the end of alcoholic fermentation on Cabernet-Sauvignon wine


Viticulture and oenology face two major challenges today, climate change and the reduction in the use of inputs. Climate change induces low acidity and microbiologically less stable wines (1), implying more important sulfur dioxide doses to protect wines. This is incompatible with the reduction of inputs. Fumaric acid (FA) is known for its high acidifying power and its bacteriostatic properties (2) and glutathione (GSH) for its antioxidant power (3). FA combined with GSH could solve acidity problems and reduction of sulfur dioxide in wine. The study aims to evaluate the impact of FA and/or GSH addition at the end of alcoholic fermentation (AF) and just before bottling on wine quality compared to sulfite free, sulfited wine control and tartaric acid (TA) acidified wine. This work only presents the impact of addition of FA and GSH at the end of AF on Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Micro-winemakings were conducted with high mature Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. 9kg of grapes were vatted in each tank with 60mg/L sulfur dioxide. Duplicated vats were treated with TA (2.5g/L), FA (2.5g/L tartaric acid eq.), with 50mg/L GSH, with FA (2.5g/L tartaric acid eq.) + GSH (50mg/L) and three tanks were untreated (controls). At bottling, control wines were mixed and half part was added with sulfur dioxide (80mg/L). Oenological parameters, color, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacities were evaluated at the end of AF, the end of malolactic fermentation (MLF) and 3 months after bottling. A ranking test and sensory profiles were realized on three-months wines. TA and FA addition at end of AF induced a similar decrease of pH. Total acidity was slightly higher in tanks where FA was added. In these same tanks, the MLFs were stopped when they had already started or did not start: MLFs were delayed for 2-3 months. Wines treated with FA produced 100% more lactic acid than control and TA-acidified wines. Color differences were observed in three-months wines after AF addition. The sulfited control was the lightest with more yellow hue and the wines with added FA were the darkest ones. Total phenolic compounds (total phenolic index and Folin-Ciocalteu analysis) were slightly lower in wines treated with FA and/or GSH. Total tannins were not affected by treatments unlike total anthocyanins. Their content in wine treated with FA without GSH was the lowest. In contrast, addition of GSH had a protective effect on total free anthocyanins. Antioxidant capacities were similar in all wines. Concerning organoleptic quality of wines, the ranking test on overall quality did not show differences but FA acidified wine was the best ranked. Sensory profils highlighted that sulfited control was less intense with more yellow hue. Acidified wines, especially with TA, and GSH added wine were slightly more aromatic than control wines. Addition of FA at the end of AF (2.5g/L tartaric acid eq.) allowed to delay MLF and produced 100% more lactic acid than control wines.


Publication date: September 14, 2021

Issue: Macrowine 2021

Type: Article


Claire Payan

Unité de recherche Œnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, ISVV, Université de Bordeaux, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France and Hochschule Geisenheim University von Lade Straße, 65366 Geisenheim, Germany,Anne-laure GANCEL, Unité de recherche Œnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, ISVV, Université de Bordeaux, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France  Monika CHRISTMANN, Hochschule Geisenheim University von Lade Straße, 65366 Geisenheim, Germany  Pierre-Louis TEISSEDRE, Unité de recherche Œnologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, ISVV, Université de Bordeaux, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France

Contact the author


fumaric acid, glutathione, color, phenolic compounds, organoleptic quality


Related articles…

Methodology to assess vine cultivation suitability using climatic ranges for key physiological processes: results for three South African regions

Le climat a de fortes implications sur le bon fonctionnement physiologique de la vigne et a besoin d’être quantifié afin de déterminer l’aptitude des régions à la culture de la vigne. Une méthode, qui pourrait éventuellement servir à prévoir l’aptitude des régions à la culture de la vigne, est proposée.

Geospatial technologies in spatially defined viticulture: case study of a vineyard with Agiorgitiko variety in Koutsi, Nemea, Greece

Geospatial technologies have significant contribution to viticulture, especially in small-scale vineyards, which require precise management. Geospatial data collected by modern technologies, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and satellite imagery, can be processed by modern software and easily be stored and transferred to GIS environments, highlighting important information about the health of vine plants, the yield of grapes and the wine, especially in wine-making varieties. The identification of field variability is very important, particularly for the production of high quality wine. Modern geospatial data management technologies are used to achieve an easy and effortless localization of the fields’ variability.

A multidisciplinary approach to evaluate the effects of the training system on the performance of “Aglianico del Vulture” vineyards

Vineyards are complex agro-ecosystems with high spatial and temporal variability. An efficient training system may counteract the adverse effects of this variability. Moreover, considering the climate change issues, choosing an efficient training system that enhances water use and protects the vines from radiative thermal stress has become a priority for the farmers. A multidisciplinary approach that assesses the soil-crop-yield-wine relationships of vineyards in a distributed and holistic way could bring added knowledge on the behavior of the different training systems. This ongoing research aimed to implement a multidisciplinary approach to study the behavior of “Aglianico del Vulture” grapevines trained with two different systems: a spurred cordon (SC) and an “Alberello in parete” (AL), grown in a high-quality wine production area of Basilicata region (Italy). The approach merged several methods and scales of soil, ecophysiology, must/wine quality, and spectral data collection to assess the influence of the training system. Homogeneous zones (HZs) in both training systems were defined through a procedure based on geomorphological classification, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) images analysis, and a traditional soil survey supported by geophysical scanning. During the 2021 season, TDR probes monitored soil water content, while grapevine health status was assessed using eco-physiological measurements (LWP, chlorophyll content, PSII photosynthetic efficiency, LAI, and point-based field spectroscopy). These grapevine in-vivo measurements validated the spectral vegetation indexes (NDVI, RENDVI, CVI, and TVI) derived from the UAV multispectral imagery, which monitored the grapevine status in a distributed and non-invasive way. Grape yield, quality of berries, must and wine were measured to assess the effects of the training systems. The first experimental year results showed the variability of the vineyards and revealed relationships among soil parameters, crop characteristics, and vegetation indices of the SC and AL training systems. This multidisciplinary study could bring new insights into the vineyard training system’s effects on grape yield and wine quality.

Trans-resveratrol concentrations in wines Cabernet Sauvignon from Chile

This study evaluated the levels of trans-resveratrol in commercial wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from different valleys of Chile stilbenes. The Cabernet Sauvignon is the most planted variety in Chile, being 38% of the total vineyard country. Chile is the fourth largest wine exporter in the world, so it is important to evaluate the Cabernet-Sauvignon wines in their concentration levels of trans-resveratrol and its relation to the benefits provided to human health in moderate consumption. Evaluation comprises commercial wines from different valleys of Chile and its relationship with climatic characteristics, soil and vineyard handling.

Apports des mesures de résistivité électrique du sol dans les études sur le fonctionnement de la vigne et dans la spatialisation parcellaire

La mesure de la résistivité électrique des sols est une technique non destructive, spatialement intégrante, utilisée depuis peu en viticulture. L’utilisation d’appareils de mesures performant et de logiciels adaptés permet de traiter les données afin de pouvoir visualiser en deux ou trois dimensions les variations de textures ou d’humidité d’un sol.