EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL AND SENSORIAL PROFILE OF WINES ELABORATED WITH THEIR OWN TOASTED VINE-SHOOTS AND MICRO-OXYGENATION

The positive contribution of toasted vine-shoots (SEGs, Shoot from vines – Enological – Granule) used in winemaking to the chemical and sensory profile of wines has been widely proven. However, the combination of this new enological tool with other winemaking technologies, such as micro-oxygenation (MOX), has not been studied so far. It is known that micro-oxygenation is used in wineries to stabilizes color, improves structure or combining with oak alternatives products to achieve a more effective aroma integration of wines. For that, its implementation in combination with SEGs could result in differentiated wines.

EXTRACTIBLE COMPOUNDS FROM MICROAGGLOMERATED CORK STOPPERS

After bottling, the wine continues to evolve during storage. The choice of the stopper is an important factor in this evolution. In addition to the oxygen permeability of the closure, the migration of stopper compounds into the wine can also have an impact on the wine organoleptic properties. Many studies have shown that transfers of volatile compounds from the stoppers into the wine can happen depending on the type of closure used (1). Moreover, when cork-made stoppers are used, the migration of phenolic compounds from the stopper into the wine can also occur (2, 3).

FACTORS AFFECTING QUERCETIN SOLUBILITY IN SANGIOVESE RED WINE: FIRST RESULTS

Quercetin (Q) is present in grape in form of glycosides and as aglycone. These compounds are extracted from grape skins during winemaking. In wines, following the hydrolysis reactions, the amount of quercetin aglycon can exceed its solubility value. Unfortunately, a threshold solubility concentration for quercetin in wine is not easy to determine because it depends on wine matrix (Gambuti et al., 2020).

FLAVANOL COMPOSITION OF VARIETAL AND BLEND WINES MADE BEFORE AND AFTER FERMENTATION FROM SYRAH, MARSELAN AND TANNAT

Background: The Flavan-3-ol extraction from grape skin and seed during red-winemaking and their retention into wines depend on many factors, some of which are modified in the winemaking of blend wines. Recent research shows that Marselan, have grapes with high proportion of skins with high concentrations of flavanols, but produces red-wines with low proportion of skin derived flavanols, differently to the observed in Syrah or Tannat. But the factors explaining these differences are not yet understood.

FUNCTIONALIZED MESOPOROUS SILICA IS A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO BENTONITE FOR WINE PROTEIN STABILIZATION

The presence of grape-derived heat unstable proteins can lead to haze formation in white wines [1], an instability prevented by removing these proteins by adding bentonite, a hydrated aluminum silicate that interacts electrostatically with wine proteins leading to their flocculation. Despite effective, using bentonite has several drawbacks as the costs associated with its use, the potential negative effects on wine quality, and its environmental impact, so that alternative solutions are needed.

HAZE RISK ASSESSMENT OF MUSCAT MUSTS AND WINES : WHICH LABORATORY TEST ALLOWS A RELIABLE ESTIMATION OF THE HEATWAVE REALITY?

Wines made from Muscat d’Alexandria grapes exhibit a high haze risk. For this reason, they are systematically treated with bentonite, on the must and sometimes also on wine. In most oenological labora-tories and in companies (trade, cooperatives, independent winegrowers), the test that is by far the most widely used, on a worldwide scale, remains the heat test at 80°C for 30 minutes to 2 hours (and some-times up to 6 hours). The tannin test (sometimes coupled with a heat treatment) and the Bentotest are still used. In this study, we show that all these tests give much higher estimates of the haze risk than the risk assessed by a 24-48h treatment at 42°C, which represents a heat wave.

IMPACT OF ACIDIFICATION AT BOTTLING BY FUMARIC ACID ON RED WINE AFTER 2 YEARS

Global warming is responsible for a lack of organic acid in grape berries, leading to wines with higher pH and lower titrable acidity. The chemical, microbiological and organoleptic equilibriums are impacted by this change of organic acid concentration. It is common practice to acidify the wine in order to prevent these imbalances that can lead to wine defects and early spoilage. Tartaric acid (TA) is most commonly used by winemaker for wine acidification purposes. Fumaric acid (FA), which is authorized by the OIV in its member states for the inhibition of malolactic fermentation, could also be used as a potential acidification candidate since it has a better acidifying power than tartaric acid.

IN DEPTH CHARACTERIZATION OF OENOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO LACHANCEA THERMOTOLERANS STARTER STRAINS

Non-Saccharomyces starter cultures became increasingly popular over the years because of their potential to produce more distinctive and unique wines. The major benefit of the use of Lachancea thermotolerans as a fermentation starter is its ability to produce relevant amounts of lactic acid and reduce alcoholic strength, making it valuable for mitigating negative impacts of climate change on grapes and wine quality. Besides, like any other non-Saccharomyces yeast, L. thermotolerans can significantly affect a whole range of other physico-chemical wine parameters.

INFLUENCE OF THE NITROGEN / LIPIDS RATIO OF MUSTS ON THE REVELATION OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS IN SAUVIGNON BLANC WINE

Production of volatile compounds by yeast is known to be modulated by must nitrogen. Nevertheless, various parameter of must quality have an impact on yeast fermentation. In this study we propose to evaluate the impact of nitrogen / lipids balance on a Sauvignon Blanc grape juice (Val de Loire).
Must was prepared from the same grapes at pilot scale. Three modalities were carried out: direct pressing, direct pressing with a pre-fermentation cold stabulation and pellicular maceration before pressing.

INFLUENCE OF THE THICKNESS OF OAK ALTERNATIVES ON THE COMPOSITION AND QUALITY OF RED WINES

Aging red wines in oak barrels is an expensive and laborious process that can only be applied to wines with a certain added value. For this reason, the use of oak alternatives coupled with micro-oxygenation has progressively increased over recent years, because it can reproduce the processes taking place in the barrels more economically and quickly [1]. Several studies have explored how oak alternatives [2-5] can contribute to wine composition and quality but little is known about the influence of their thickness.

INFLUENCE OF WINEMAKING VARIABLES AND VINEYARD LOCATIONS ON CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROFILES OF SOUTH TYROLEAN PINOT BLANC

Pinot Blanc, an important grape variety grown in some mountain areas of Northern Italy such as South Tyrol over the last decades, with its cultivation covering 10.3% of the total vineyards, has compatible climatic conditions (e.g. heat requirements) which are normally found in the geographical areas of the mountain viticulture [1,2,3,4]. Climatic changes are hastening the growth of this variety at higher elevations, particularly for the production of high quality wine.

MODULATION OF YEAST-DERIVED AROMA COMPOUNDS IN CHARDONNAY WINES USING ENCAPSULATED DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE TO CONTROL NUTRIENT RELEASE

Yeast-derived aroma compounds are the result of different and complex biochemical pathways that mainly occur during alcoholic fermentation. Many of them are related -but not limited- to the availability of nutrients in the fermentation medium and linked to nitrogen metabolism and biomass produced. Besides, the metabolic phase of yeast also regulates the expression of many enzymes involved in the formation of aroma active compounds. The work investigates the overall effect of continuous supplementation of nutrients during alcoholic fermentation of a grape must on the volatile composition of wines.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT VITICULTURAL AND ENOLOGICAL PRACTICES ON THE PHENOLIC COMPOSITION OF RED WINES

Global climate change is exerting a notable influence on viticulture sector and grape composition. The increase in temperature and the changes in rainfall pattern are causing a gap between phenolic and technological grape maturities [1]. As a result, the composition of grapes at harvest time and, consequently, that of wines are being affected, especially with regards to phenolic composition. Hence, wine quality is decreasing due to changes in the organoleptic properties, such as color and astringency, making necessary to implement new adaptive technologies in wineries to modulate these properties in order to improve wine quality.

EFFECT OF FUMARIC ACID ON SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION IN GRAPE MUST

Malolactic fermentation (MLF)¹, the decarboxylation of L-malic acid into L-lactic acid, is performed by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). MLF has a deacidifying effect that may compromise freshness or microbiological stability in wines² and can be inhibited by fumaric acid [E297] (FA). In wine, can be added at a maximum allowable dose of 0.6 g/L³. Its inhibition with FA is being studied as an alternative strategy to minimize added doses of SO₂⁴. In addition, wine yeasts are capable of metabolizing and storing small amounts of FA and during alcoholic fermentation (AF).

EFFECT OF MANNOPROTEIN-RICH EXTRACTS FROM WINE LEES ON PHENOLICCOMPOSITION AND COLOUR OF RED WINE

In 2022, wine production was estimated at around 260 million hl. This high production rate implies to generate a large amount of by-products, which include grape pomace, grape stalks and wine lees. It is estimated that processing 100 tons of grapes leads to ~ 22 tons of by-products from which ~ 6 tons are lees [1]. Wine lees are a sludge-looking material mostly made of dead and living yeast cells, yeast debris and other particles that precipitate at the bottom of wine tanks after alcoholic fermentation. Unlike grape pomace or grape stalks, few strategies have been proposed for the recovery and valorisation of wine less [2].

EFFECT OF MICRO-OXYGENATION IN COLOR OF WINES MADE WITH TOASTED VINE-SHOOTS

The use of toasted vine-shoots (SEGs) as an enological tool is a new practice that seeks to improve wines, differentiating them and encouraging sustainable wine production. The micro-oxygenation (MOX) technique is normally combined with alternative oak products with the aim to simulate the oxygen transmission rate that takes place during the traditional barrel aging. Such new use for SEGs implies a reduction in color due to the absorption by the wood of the responsible compounds, therefore, given the known effect that MOX has shown to have on the modification of wine color, its use together with the SEGs could result in an interesting implementation with the aim to obtain final wines with more stable color over time.

EFFECT OF OXIDATION ON LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT PHENOLIC FRACTION, SALIVARY PROTEINS PRECIPITATION AND ASTRINGENCY SUBQUALITIES OF RED WINES

Changes in the low molecular weight phenolic fraction, obtained by liquid-liquid microextraction technique, were studied after controlled oxidation of two typologies of Sangiovese wines (Brunello di Montalcino and Chianti Classico) belonging to two vintages (2017 and 2018). The fractions were characterized by LC-MS and quantified by HPLC. The most abundant extracted compounds were the phenolic acids. The effect of oxidation, vintage, and wine typology was stated by a three-ways ANOVA. Gallic and syringic acids significantly increased after oxidation while (–)-epicatechin decreased the most.

ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION AND COLOR OF ROSÉ WINES: INVESTIGATIONS ON THE MECHANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR SUCH DIVERSITY

Color is one of the key elements for the marketing of rosé wines due to their packaging in transparent bottles. Their broad color range is due to the presence of pigments belonging to phenolic compounds extracted from grapes or formed during the wine-making process. However, the mechanisms responsible for such diversity are poorly understood. The few investigations performed on rosé wines showed that their phenolic composition is highly variable, close to that of red wines for the darkest rosés but very different for light ones [1]. Moreover, large variations in the extent of color loss taking place during fermentation have been reported but the mechanisms involved and causes of such variability are unknown.

CHARACTERIZATION OF ENOLOGICAL OAK TANNIN EXTRACTS BY MULTI-ANALYTICAL METHODS APPROACH

Oak tannin extracts are commonly used to improve wine properties. The main polyphenols found in oak wood extracts are ellagitannins¹ that release ellagic acid upon hydrolysis and comprise numerous structures². Moreover, oak tannin extracts contain other compounds giving a complex mixture. Consequently, the official OIV method based on gravimetric analysis of the tannin fraction adsorbed on polyvinylpolypyrrolidone is not sufficient to describe their composition and highlight their chemical diversity.

EFFECTS OF WINEMAKING FACTORS AND AGEING ON THE POLYPHENOLIC AND COLORIMETRIC PROFILES IN RED WINES PRONE TO COLOUR INSTABILITY

The effects of (A) grape freezing, and (B) malolactic fermentation, have been evaluated on the chemical and colorimetric profiles of red wines from Schiava grossa cv. grapes, thus prone to colour instability. The aim was to observe if specific variables (e.g. grape freezing) could improve the extraction and stability of pigments. The samples were studied from musts up to twelve months in bottle. The study was conducted with independent parallel micro-vinifications (12 = 4 theses x 3 replicates) under strictly-controlled conditions.