PHOTO OXIDATION OF LUGANA WINES: INFLUENCE OF YEASTS AND RESIDUAL NITROGEN ON VSCS PROFILE

Lugana wines are made from Turbiana grapes. In recent times, many white and rosé wines are bottled and stored in flint glass bottles because of commercial appeal. However, this practice could worsen the aroma profile of the wine, especially as regards the development of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). This study aims to investigate the consequences of exposure to light in flint bottles on VSCs profile of Lugana wines fermented with two different yeasts and with different post-fermentation residual nitrogen.

POTENTIAL OF PEPTIDASES FOR AVOIDING PROTEIN HAZES IN MUST AND WINE

Haze formation in wine during transportation and storage is an important issue for winemakers, since turbid wines are unacceptable for sale. Such haze often results from aggregation of unstable grape proteinaceous colloids. To date, foreseeably unstable wines need to be treated with bentonite to remove these, while excessive quantities, which are often required, affect the wine volume and quality (Cosme et al. 2020). One solution to avoid these drawbacks might be the use of peptidases. Marangon et al. (2012) reported that Aspergillopepsins I and II were able to hydrolyse the respective haze-relevant proteins in combination with a flash pasteurisation. In 2021, the OIV approved this enzymatic treatment for wine stabilisation (OIV-OENO 541A and 541B).

REMEDIATION OF SMOKE TAINTED WINE USING MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERS

In recent years, vineyards in Australia, the US, Canada, Chile, South Africa and Europe have been exposed to smoke from wildfires. Wines made from smoke-affected grapes often exhibit unpleasant smoky, ashy characters, attributed to the presence of smoke-derived volatile compounds, including volatile phenols (which occur in free and glycosylated forms). Various strategies for remediation of smoke tainted wine have been evaluated. The most effective strategies involve the removal of smoke taint compounds via the addition of adsorbent materials such as activated carbon, which can either be added directly or used in combination with nanofiltration. However, these treatments often simultaneously remove wine constituents responsible for desirable aroma, flavour and colour attributes.

TARTARIC STABILIZATION MAY AFFECT THE COLOR AND POLYPHENOLIC COMPOSITION OF TANNAT RED WINES FROM URUGUAY

Tartrate precipitation affects the properties of wines, due to the formation of crystals that cause turbidity, even after being bottled. The forced tartaric stabilization is carried out frequently for young wines, through various physicochemical procedures. The traditional treatment for tartaric stabilization is refrigeration, but it can have a negative effect on wine’s sensory properties, and particularly on the color of red wines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different tartaric stabilization options on the color and phenolic composition of Tannat red wines from Uruguay.

THE EFFECT OF BENTONITE FINING ON THE VOLATILE AND NON-VOLATILE PROFILE OF ITALIAN WHITE WINES

Marselan wines have an unusual high proportion of seed derived tannins from grapes having high proportions of skins, which are rich in tannins. But the causes behind this characteristic have not yet been identified. In vintage 2023 wines were made at experimental scale (9 kg by experimental unit) from Arinarnoa, Marselan and Tannat Vitis vinifera grape cultivars by traditional maceration, and by techniques aimed to increase the wine content in skin derived tannin: addition of extraction enzymes, addition at vatting of grape-skin enological tannins, or by extended maceration, known to increase the seed derived tannin contents of wines. Macerations were of 7 days, except in the extended macerations that were of 15 days.

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TERROIRS ON AROMA COMPOUNDS OF ‘KALECIK KARASI’ WINES

Kalecik Karası is a domestic grape variety of Turkey, originating from Kalecik district, 80 km from Ankara. Although there is no definite evidence, it is known that it was used in wine production by many civilizations that lived in the Anatolian region, especially the Hittites. Compared to other black wine grapes, it stands out with its low tannin content, rich fruity aroma and complex structure. In good vintages, red fruits such as strawberries, cherries and raspberries stand out in the aroma profile. Although its structure is elegant, it has the potential to age and develop similar to the ‘Pinot Noir’ wine of the Burgundy region. This offers a complex aroma structure including red flowers, earth and ripe fruits.

TOWARDS THE SHELF-LIFE PREDICTION OF OLD CHAMPAGNE VINTAGES DEPENDING ON THE BOTTLE CAPACITY

Today, nearly one billion bottles of different sizes and capacities are aging in Champagne cellars while waiting to be put on the market. Among them, several tens of thousands of prestigious cuvees elaborated prior the 2000s are potentially concerned by prolonged aging on lees. However, when it comes to champagne tasting, dissolved CO₂ is a key compound responsible for the very much sought-after effer-vescence in glasses [1]. Yet, the slow decrease of dissolved CO₂ during prolonged aging of the most prestigious cuvees raises the issue of how long a champagne can age before it becomes unable to form CO₂ bubbles during tasting [2].

OPTIMISATION OF THE AROMATIC PROFILE OF UGNI BLANC WINE DISTILLATE THROUGH THE CONTROL OF ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

The online monitoring of fermentative aromas provides a better understanding of the effect of temperature on the synthesis and the loss of these molecules. During fermentation, gas and liquid phase concentrations as well as losses and total productions of volatile compounds can be followed with an unprecedented acquisition frequency of about one measurement per hour. Access to instantaneous production rates and total production balances for the various volatile compounds makes it possible to distinguish the impact of temperature on yeast production (biological effect) from the loss of aromatic molecules due to a physical effect³.

USE OF COLD LIQUID STABULATION AS AN OENOLOGICAL TECHNIQUE IN WHITE WINEMAKING: EFFECTS ON PHENOLIC, AROMATIC AND SENSORIAL COMPOSITION

The application of different winemaking techniques helps to modify the basic parameters, phenolic profile, and aroma components influencing the final wine quality. In particular, pre-fermentative processes aim to increase the extraction and preservation of grape native compounds. Among them, cold liquid stabulation (macération sur bourbes) consists in maintaining the grape juice on its lees, in suspended condition at low temperature (0-8 °C) for a variable time (generally from 7 to 21 days). The aim of this work is to apply the cold liquid stabulation on two Italian white grape varieties, Arneis and Cortese, to evaluate the impact on basic parameters, color, polyphenolic compounds (TPI), antioxidant power (DPPH), total polysaccharides, and free and glycosylated volatile compounds (GC-MS analysis) during and after the process.

VALORIZATION OF GRAPE WINE POMACE USING PULSED ELECTRIC FIELDS (PEF) AND SUPERCRITICAL CO₂ (SC CO₂) EXTRACTION

Wine grape pomace quantitatively and qualitatively represents the most important fraction of wine waste. Namely, this by-product makes ~ 20% of the total mass of vinified grapes, and it is characterized with high concentrations of polyphenolic antioxidants, as well as grape seed oil. Hence, valorization of wine pomace, as an alternative to traditionally employed disposal, has drown considerable interest in recent years. Earlier studies were mostly focused on the extraction of phenolics, while mechanisms enhancing the extraction of lipid fraction from grape pomace, as well as their impact on the grape seed oil quality are far less investigated.

VOLTAMETRIC PROFILING OF RED WINE COMPOSITION DURING MACERATION: A STUDY ON FOUR GRAPE VARIETIES

During red wine vinification, maceration allows the must, and consequently the wine, to be enriched with several compounds that contribute to the creation of the typical organoleptic characteristics of red wines. Among these, extraction of polyphenols (PPs) during maceration is a major process of enological interest.
The purpose of this study was the evaluate the suitability of a rapid analytical approach based in linear sweep voltammetry to monitor PPs extraction during vinification.

WINE RACKING IN THE WINERY AND THE USE OF INERT GASES: CONTROL AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS

Atmospheric oxygen (O₂) generates oxidation in wines that affect their physicochemical and sensory evolution. The O₂ uptake in the different winemaking processes is generally considered to be negative for the sensory characteristics of white and rosé wines. Wine racking is a critical point of O₂ uptake, as the large surface area of the wine exposed during this operation and the inability to maintain an effective inert gas blanket over it.
The aim was to study the uptake of O₂ during the racking of a model wine as a reference and to compare with purging the destination tank with different inert gases.

YEAST LEES OBTAINED AFTER STARMERELLA BACILLARIS FERMENTATION AS A SOURCE OF POTENTIAL COMPOUNDS TO IMPROVE SUSTAINABILITY IN WINE- MAKING

The yeast residue left over after wine-making, known as wine yeast lees, is a source of various compounds that are of interest for wine and food industry. In winemaking, yeast-derived glycocompounds and proteins represent an example of circular economy approach since they have been proven to reduce the need for bentonite and animal-based fining agents. This leads to a reduced environmental impact in the stabilization and fining processes in winemaking. (de Iseppi et al., 2020, 2021).

LARGE SURVEY OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WINES RESULTING OF THE PRESSING OF RED WINE MARC. FIRST RESULTS

In the Bordeaux vineyards, press red wine represents about 15% of the volume of wines. Valuing this large volume of press wine is necessary from an economic point of view, of course, but also because of their organoleptic contribution to the blend. Nevertheless, there is a lack of recent knowledge on the composition of press wines. This work aims to establish an initial assessment of their composition (aromatic and polyphenolic) and to set up hypothesis on to the links with their sensorial identity.

ESTIMATING THE INITIAL OXYGEN RELEASE (IOR) OF CORK CLOSURES

Many factors influence aging of bottled wine, oxygen transfer through the closure is included. The maximum uptake of wine before oxidation begins varies from 60 mg.L-¹ to 180 mg.L-1 for white and red wines respectively [1].
The process of bottling may lead to considerable amounts of oxygen. The actual contribution of the transfer through the closure system becomes relevant at the bottle storage, but the amounts are small compared to prepacking operations [2] and to the total oxygen attained during filling.

EFFECTS OF LEAF REMOVAL AT DIFFERENT BUNCHES PHENOLOGICAL STAGES ON FREE AND GLYCOCONJUGATE AROMAS OF SKINS AND PULPS OF TWO ITALIAN RED GRAPES

Canopy-management practices are applied in viticulture to improve berries composition and quality, having a great impact on primary and secondary grape metabolism. Among these techniques, cluster zone leaf removal (defoliation) is widely used to manage air circulation, temperature and light radiation of grape bunches and close environment. Since volatiles are quantitatively and qualitatively influenced by the degree of fruit ripeness, the level of solar exposure, and the thermal environment in which grapes ripen, leaf removal has been shown to affect volatile composition of grape berries [1].

EVALUATING WINEMAKING APPLICATIONS OF ULTRAFILTRATION TECHNOLOGY

Ultrafiltration is a process that fractionates mixtures using semipermeable membranes, primarily on the basis of molecular weight. Depending on the nominal molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) specifications of the membrane, smaller molecules pass through the membrane into the ‘permeate’, while larger molecules are retained and concentrated in the ‘retentate’. This study investigated applications of ultrafiltration technology for enhanced wine quality and profitability. The key objective was to establish to what extent ultrafiltration could be used to manage phenolic compounds (associated with astringency or bitterness) and proteins (associated with haze formation) in white wine.

EVIDENCE OF THE INTERACTION OF ULTRASOUND AND ASPERGILLOPEPSINS I ON UNSTABLE GRAPE PROTEINS

Most of the effects of ultrasound (US) result from the collapse of bubbles due to cavitation. The shockwave produced is associated with shear forces, along with high localised temperatures and pressures. However, the high-speed stream, radical species formation, and heat generated during sonication may also affect the stability of some enzymes and proteins, depending on their chemical structure. Recently, Ce-lotti et al. (2021) reported the effects of US on protein stability in wines. To investigate this further, the effect of temperature (40°C and 70°C; 60s), sonication (20 kHz and 100 % amplitude, for 20s and 60s, leading to the same temperatures as above, respectively), in combination with Aspergillopepsins I (AP-I) supplementation (100 μg/L), was studied on unstable protein concentration (TLPs and chitinases) using HPLC with an UV–Vis detector in a TLPs-supplemented model system and in an unstable white wine.

EVOLUTION OF CHEMICAL AND SENSORIAL PROFILE OF WINES ELABORATED WITH THEIR OWN TOASTED VINE-SHOOTS AND MICRO-OXYGENATION

The positive contribution of toasted vine-shoots (SEGs, Shoot from vines – Enological – Granule) used in winemaking to the chemical and sensory profile of wines has been widely proven. However, the combination of this new enological tool with other winemaking technologies, such as micro-oxygenation (MOX), has not been studied so far. It is known that micro-oxygenation is used in wineries to stabilizes color, improves structure or combining with oak alternatives products to achieve a more effective aroma integration of wines. For that, its implementation in combination with SEGs could result in differentiated wines.

EXTRACTIBLE COMPOUNDS FROM MICROAGGLOMERATED CORK STOPPERS

After bottling, the wine continues to evolve during storage. The choice of the stopper is an important factor in this evolution. In addition to the oxygen permeability of the closure, the migration of stopper compounds into the wine can also have an impact on the wine organoleptic properties. Many studies have shown that transfers of volatile compounds from the stoppers into the wine can happen depending on the type of closure used (1). Moreover, when cork-made stoppers are used, the migration of phenolic compounds from the stopper into the wine can also occur (2, 3).