Terroir 1996 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 French AOC positioning and their concepts and extension to other products

French AOC positioning and their concepts and extension to other products


Constitue une appellation d’origine “la dénomination géographique d’un pays, d’une région ou d’une localité servant à désigner un produit qui en est originaire, et dont la qualité ou les caractères sont dus exclusivement ou essentiellement au milieu géographique, comprenant les facteurs naturels et les facteurs humains …”
Dès à présent, il est important de souligner que c’est donc la spécificité qu’un milieu géographique imprime à un produit qui permet de fonder la reconnaissance et la protection dont il pourra bénéficier au titre des appellations d’origine.
A la fin du XIXème siècle, devant le développement de plus en plus intense des commerces intérieurs et extérieurs et la demande de produits renommés, la lutte s’engage entre, d’une part, ceux qui désirent conserver un droit au nom acquis grâce à des conditions climatiques remarquables, à la nature des sols, aux manières de cultiver les produits ou de les fabriquer, et, d’autre part ceux, qui s’efforcent, sans raison ni droit, d’utiliser injustement ces dénominations pour en tirer un profit illégitime.

Appellation of origin means “the geographical name of a country, region or locality, which serves to designate a product originating therein, the quality and characteristics of which are due exclusive/y or essentially to the geographical environment, including natural and human factors”.
It is important, from the very beginning, to emphasize therefore that it is the very specific nature that a geographical environment lends to a product that provides a basis for the recognition and protection that it may enjoy under an appellation of origin. At the middle of the nineteenth century the economic situation changed considerably. As a result of the ever more intensive development of home and foreign trade and the demand for reputed goods, a battle ensued between those wishing to maintain their rights in a name acquired as a result of outstanding climatic conditions, the nature of the soil, the manner of cultivating the products or of manufacturing them, and those who, with neither reason nor right, wish to ma.ke unfair use of usurped denominations for their own unlawful profit.


Publication date: February 16, 2022

Issue: Terroir 2002

Type: Article


Jacques FANET

138 Champs Elysées 75008 PARIS

Contact the author


IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2002


Related articles…

Winemaking processes discrimination by using qNMR metabolomics

AIM: Metabolomics in food science has been increasingly used over the last twenty years. Among the tools used for wine, qNMR has emerged as a powerful tool to discern wines based on environmental factors such as geographical origin, grape variety and vintage (Gougeon et al., 2019a).

Regulated deficit irrigation and crop load interaction effects on grape heterogeneity

Aim: To investigate the interaction effects between irrigation and crop load and the resulting impact on grape heterogeneity within a Geographical Indication in South Australia. 

Methods and Results: Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were sampled at the time of harvest from the Coonawarra

Vintage by vine interactions most strongly influence Pinot noir grape and wine composition in New Zealand

Vine genetics, fruit maturity, region and vineyard are perceived as factors that strongly influence Pinot noir grape and wine composition. Our study aims to understand the relationship between grape (and ultimately wine) composition and the physical appearance and performance characteristics of a vine (i.e. vine ideotype). Our experimental approach controlled these variables by

Chitosan treatment to manage grapevine downy mildew

Downy mildew is one of the most important grapevine diseases, caused by the Oomycete Plasmopara viticola. The management of the disease in organic agriculture can require up to 15 copper applications per year. However, copper accumulates in the soil, is phytotoxic and is toxic for organisms living in the soil, its use has been restricted in European Union to maximum 28 kg in 7 years. Therefore, testing of alternatives with equal effectiveness is desirable. Among those, the natural biopolymer chitosan, obtained from crab shells, proved to be effective toward downy mildew in plot experiments. The aim of our trials was to extend chitosan applications in large scale experiments in different years, cultivars and environmental conditions.

Beyond classical statistics – data fusion coupled with pattern recognition

AIM: Patterns in data obtained from wine chemical and sensory evaluations are difficult to infer using classical statistics.