Terroir 1996 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Évolutions qualitative et quantitative des flores microbiennes de moûts de pommes à cidre au cours de la fermentation: relations avec le terroir et la composition physico-chimique des fruits

Évolutions qualitative et quantitative des flores microbiennes de moûts de pommes à cidre au cours de la fermentation: relations avec le terroir et la composition physico-chimique des fruits


En France, la filière A.O.C. cidricole emploie de plus en plus de levures initialement sélectionnées pour les fermentations des vins. Le risque d’une uniformisation organoleptique ou d’un marquage fort des produits, souvent évoqué en œnologie (Bourguignon, 1992) risque de se produire au détriment de la nécessaire originalité des cidres d’appellation. La connaissance de la microflore indigène associée aux terroirs, en vue de son utilisation exclusive dans les processus fermentaires, est donc un enjeu important (Frezier et Dubourdieu, 1992 ; Legras et al., 1996). Afin d’ étudier la composition des pommes et suivre son incidence, aux points de vue qualitatif et quantitatif, sur la flore microbienne des moûts obtenus à partir de ces fruits, trois vergers représentatifs des principaux terroirs de l’AOC Pays d’Auge (Normandie) ont été sélectionnés.



Publication date: February 24, 2022

Issue: Terroir 2000 

Type: Article


A. Jacquet*, J.M. Laplace**, I. Travers*, Y. Auffray** and J.P. Simon***

* UA INRA 950 de physiologie et Biochimie Végétales. IRBA. Université de Caen, 14032 Caen cedex France
**Laboratoire de Microbiologie de l’Environnement, IRBA, Université de Caen 14032 Caen cedex France
***ARAC, Lycée agricole du Robillard 14170 Lieury France


IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2000


Related articles…

La Région Délimitée du Douro et le Vin de Porto — un terroir historique —

The viticulture of the Douro Delimited Region, one of the heirs of ancestral viticulture, traditionally empirical and of quality, while integrating modernity and contemporary tools, respects and has always present the principles on which it was developed.

An overview of the impact of clone, environmental factors and viticultural techniques on rotundone concentration in red wines

Rotundone is the main aroma compound responsible for peppery notes in red wine. This positive and very potent molecule has an odor threshold of 8 ng/L in water and 16 ng/L in red wine. It has been detected in several grape varieties with some of the highest concentrations recorded in Syrah, Duras, Tardif and Noiret, an interspecific hybrid grown in the North-East of the USA. If several winemaking practices have been identified to lower rotundone in wine, up to date, no enological solution has proved its efficiency to maximize it. This means that efforts to produce high rotundone wines must be undertaken in vineyards. This work provides practical ways that can be used by winegrowers to modulate rotundone levels in their wines.

Effect of oenological tannins on wine aroma before and after oxidation: a real-time study by coupling sensory (TDS) and chemical (PTR-ToF-MS) analyses

Polyphenols are important compounds involved in many chemical and sensory wine features. In winemaking, adding oenological tannins claims to have positive impacts on wine stability, protection from oxidation and aroma persistence. Polyphenols are antioxidant compounds by either scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species or chelating Fe2+ ions (1). However, as tannins oxidation leads to the formation of highly reactive species (i.e. ortho-quinones), it is still unclear if they have an effective role toward oxidation of wine aromas (2). In this work, we aim at studying the effect of two commercial tannins (proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins) on red wine flavour (mainly aroma) before and after air exposition.

Agronomic and qualitative behaviour of cv. Tempranillo according to three vine spacing on two different hydric-edaphic situations in the Duero river valley

The knowledge of the influence of soil conditions on the effects that different plant densities provoke in the agronomic grapevine behaviour becomes very interesting since it allows to focus the vineyard management on the optimization of the natural, hydric and human resources.

Research on the origin and the side effects of chitosan stabilizing properties in wine

Fungal chitosan is a polysaccharide made up of glucosamine and N-acetyl-glucosamine and derived from chitin-glucan of Aspergillus niger or Agaricus bisporus. Fungal chitosan has been authorized as an antiseptic agent in wine since 2009 (OIV) and in organic wine in 2018. At the maximum dose of 10g/hl, it was shown to eliminate Brettanomyces bruxellensis, the main spoilage agent in red wines. Fungal chitosan is highly renewable, biocompatible (ADI equivalent to sucrose) and non-allergenic. However, winemakers often prefer to use sulfites (SO2), though sulfites are classified as priority food allergens, than chitosan. Indeed, many conflicting reports exist regarding its efficiency and its side effects towards beneficial wine microorganisms or wine taste. These contradictions could be explained by the heterogeneity of the fungal chitosan lots traded, the diversity of the wines (chemical composition, winemaking process), but also, by the recently highlighted huge genetic diversity prevailing in wine microbial species.