IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Influence of successive oxygen saturations of a grape juice, supplemented or not with laccase, on its color and hydroxycinnamic acids concentration

Influence of successive oxygen saturations of a grape juice, supplemented or not with laccase, on its color and hydroxycinnamic acids concentration


Aim: This work studies how successive O2 saturations affects the color and hydroxycinnamic
acids concentration in the absence and presence of laccase from B. cinerea with the aim of better understanding the browning processes.

Materials and methods: Grapes of Muscat of Alexandria were harvested and pressed with a vertical press to extract 60% of their juice. Aliquots of 30 mL of this must were placed in 60 mL flasks equipped with a pill (PreSens Precision Sensing GmbH) for measuring oxygen by luminescence (Nomasense TM O2 Trace Oxygen Analyzer). These flasks were added or not with SO2 (50 mg/L) and with 2 UA/mL of laccase from B. cinerea (Giménez et al., 2022). All operations were carried out with a continuous nitrogen stream to protect the grape juice from air oxygen. The grape juices were then saturated in O2. The flasks were kept at 20±2 °C and O2 was monitored (Diéval et al., 2011). Once O2 was completely consumed, this operation was repeated twice to reach a total of three O2 saturations. Absorbances at 420, 320 and 280 nm were determined in all the samples. Hydroxycinnamic acids and GRP were analyzed by RP-HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS (Lago-Vanzela et al., 2013).

Results and discussion: Samples without SO2 and laccase consumed O2 after the 2st saturation in around 1 hour with an initial O2 consumption rate (OCR) of 0.262±0.009 mg of O2/minute. Surprisingly, no significant differences were found in the OCR of the samples supplemented with laccase in the 1st saturation (0.266±0.075). However, the OCR decreased significantly for the 2nd and 3rd saturations in the case of the samples without laccase (0.128±0.003 and 0.101±0.011 respectively) whereas no significant decrease was observed when laccase was present (0.268±0.013 and 0.238±0.049 respectively). The supplementation with SO2 almost completely inhibited OCR in both cases, without and with laccase (0.006±0.002 and 0.011±0.003 respectively). The A420 nm (yellow color) increased after each saturation and this augmentation was significant higher in the samples supplemented with laccase. In contrast, the A320 nm (hydroxycinnamic acids) and A280 nm (total phenolic compounds) do the opposite. Finally, caftaric and cutaric acids and in a minor extent fertaric acid concentrations decreased after each saturation and this decrease was very similar in the samples supplemented or not with laccase. In contrast, the samples supplemented with SO2 hardly showed changes in the different absorbances or in the hydroxycinnamic acids.


These results confirm that SO2 is very effective to prevent browning even in the presence of laccase. This data also indicate that the presence of laccase provokes higher browning even consuming the same O2 than without its presence, probably because can use more substrates than natural grape tyrosinase


Diéval, J.B., Vidal, S., & Aagaard, O. (2011). Measurement of the oxygen transmission rate of co-extruded wine bottle closures using a luminescence-based technique. Packaging Technology and Science, 24, 375–385.
Giménez, P., Anguela, S., Just-Borras, A., Pons-Mercadé, P., Vignault, A., Canals, J.M., Teissedre, P.L., Zamora, F. (2022) Development of a synthetic model to measure browning caused by laccase activity from Botrytis cinerea. LWT – Food Science and Technology 154 (2022) 112871. 
Lago-Vanzela, E.S., Rebello, L.P.G., Ramos, A.M., Stringheta, P.C., Da-Silva, R., García-Romero, E., Gómez-Alonso, S. and Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I. (2013) Chromatic characteristics and color-related phenolic composition of Brazilian young red wines made from the hybrid grape cultivar BRS Violeta (‘BRS Rúbea’ × ‘IAC 1398-21’). Food Research International 54, 33–43.


Publication date: June 23, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Article


Zamora Fernando 1, Giménez Pol1, Just-Borras Arnau1, Solé-Clua Ignasi1, Pérez-Navarro José2, Gombau Jordi1, Gómez-Alonso Sergio2 and Canals Joan Miquel1

1Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’Enologia de Tarragona, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/Marcel.li Domingo s/n, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
2Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Instituto Regional de Investigación Científica Aplicada. Ciudad Real, Spain

Contact the author


Grape Juice, Oxidation, Browning, Laccase, Hydroxycinnamic Acids


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.