IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Using 1H-NMR combined with chemometrics to discriminate the effect of different cuts and toasting of woods used for grape pomace distillate ageing

Using 1H-NMR combined with chemometrics to discriminate the effect of different cuts and toasting of woods used for grape pomace distillate ageing


The purpose of this research study is to consider new solutions for distillate ageing, in alternative to conventional oak chips or barrels in particular sliced wood and peeled wood were compared to oak cubes, normally employed during both wine and distillate ageing. All three formats have been toasted using a “in lab” protocol at three different level of intensity: strongly toasted, lightly toasted and not toasted.
NMR spectroscopy was used to assess the differences, in and the chemical fingerprint among experimental distillates, aged using woods with different cuts and toasting levels.
NMR spectrometry is widely used in food analysis for metabolomic studies and for the evaluation of samples that have undergone different treatments. NMR allows to obtain a complex fingerprint spectrum characterised by the chemical species of the samples. The advantages of high resolution 1H-NMR are absolute reproducibility and laboratory-to-laboratory transferability, compared to other method currently used in food analysis. The region between 11 and 6 ppm of 1H-NMR spectra was chosen focussing on the range where main structural differences related to xylovolatile compounds, namely phenols, aldehydes and aromatic groups were present.
The obtained 1H-NMR data sets were firstly analysed by chemometric multivariate unsupervised methods, that showed a good separation between the control sample (i.e. distillates aged without oak) and all other samples, as well as between the different sample groups. In particular, principal components analysis (PCA), Anova-Simultaneous components analysis (ASCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were calculated and compared. This approach showed that samples refined with strongly, lightly or not toasted wood present a different molecular profile. A group separation was observed based on the wood cut type (i.e. sliced, peeled or cubes). Moreover, a non-negligible effect of the interaction between cut type and the toasting level was noticed.
Hence, the results confirmed the ageing process, that affects the chemical profile of grape pomace distillates, can be effectively monitored by NMR analysis. This provides a promising tool for distinguishing the different ageing conditions of spirits and assessing their quality


Publication date: June 23, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Article


Portesi Chiara1, Mandrile Luisa1, Asproudi Andriani2, Bonello Federica2, Chiarabaglio Pier Mario3, Rosso Laura3 and Petrozziello Maurizio2

1INRiM – Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Politecnico di Torino
2CREA, Research Centre for Viticulture and Enology
3CREA – Consiglio per la ricerca in agricoltura e l’analisi dell’economia agraria, Centro di Ricerca Foresta e Legno 

Contact the author


Toasting process, wood chips, NMR, grape pomace distillate, chemometrics


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Effect of scion-rootstock combinations on the performance of a near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for determining vine water status

In the context of sustainable viticulture, modern and efficient techniques to determine water status are required to optimize irrigation practices. Proximal techniques such as thermography and spectroscopy have shown promising results. When these techniques are incorporated into mobile systems is possible to evaluate the water status on-the-go, offering the possibility to generate variability maps. However, in most cases, complex protocols of data acquisition and analysis are required. Also, the inherent physiological behaviour of the plants under certain water stress conditions needs to be considered. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of scion-rootstock combinations on the performance of a predefined plant-based method based on proximal near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy.

Effects of different organic amendments on soil, vine, grape and wine, in a long-term field experiment in Chinon vineyard (France)

In a long-term experiment carried out in Chinon vineyard (37, France) during 23 years, the effects of several organic amendments were studied on soil, vine, grapes and wine. Four main treatments were compared on a calcareous sandy soil: control without organic amendment, dry crushed pruning wood at 2.1.t-1.ha-1.year-1 (D1), cow manure at 10 t-1. ha-1.year-1 (D1) and cow manure applied at 20 t-1.ha-1.year-1 (D2). D1 levels were calculated to fill the annual humus losses by mineralization.

Enological characters of thirty vines in four different zones of Tuscany

In the last few years the development of HPLC techniques together with multivariate statistical methods allowed to set methodics of large discriminant and classing efficacy in the study of wine-grapes.

Relation between phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, oxygen consumption rate of diverse tannins

The work was aimed at comparing some analytical methods used to characterize oenological tannins and the measure of oxygen consumption rate (OCR), in order to provide oenologists with a rapid method to test the antioxidant capacity of tannin based products and a tool to choose the best suited product for each purpose.

Caracterización sensorial preliminar de los vinos tintos de la Isla de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, España)

En la isla de Tenerife (Islas Canarias, Espafia) existen cinco Denominaciones de Origen (D.O.) con una superficie inscrita aproximada de 5.000 hectareas. Actualmente existen 94 bodegas