IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Sensory significance of aroma carry-over during bottling from aromatized wine-based beverages into regular wine

Sensory significance of aroma carry-over during bottling from aromatized wine-based beverages into regular wine


In 2020 one out of  eight wine bottles were filled with a flavoured wine-based beverage.
Installed sealings absorb aroma compounds and release them during subsequent bottling of regular wines. This unintentional carry-over bears the risk to violate the legal ban of any
aromatization of regular wine.  Due to the highly seasonal bottling of aromatized wine-based beverages such as mulled wine, an installation of a second bottling line  reserved for aromatized beverages only is too expensive. Thus we investigated the absorption and desorption process during bottling and cleaning in order to minimize aroma carry-over by improved cleaning efficacy.  If cleaning obeys good manufacturing practice (GMP) and traces of aroma compounds in the subsequently filled wine show no sensory significance, this unintended aroma carry-over will be considered as technically unavoidable and has no legal consequences anymore. Based on a novel direct analysis of aroma compounds within the sealing polymers, which we exposed to aromatized wine and cleaning agents in a model
system, a GMP cleaning sequence removed only 11–62% of the seven absorbed marker
aroma compounds such as γ-decalactone, α-ionon or eugenol.1 Among the cleaning factors, high temperature of 85 °C revealed the largest cleaning efficacy, while chemical additives such as citric acid, caustic soda or ozone exhibited only minor impact. A total removal of absorbed aroma compounds from sealing however was not achieved, making a later release into subsequent wines possible. To study the requested absence of sensory significance, odor detection thresholds of seven aroma compounds commonly used for aromatization were determined in water, model wine and regular white wine. Applying the odor activity concept to traces of aroma compounds detected in the subsequent bottled wines allowed us to determine unequivocally their sensory impact. 

Studying uptake, cleaning and further release in two industry scale bottling lines we could confirm the uptake of marker compounds into built-in sealing during the filling of mulled or aromatized wines for four days. GMP cleaning only reduced small amounts of absorbed aroma compounds from the sealing, which was also the case for the subsequent bottling of regular wines. Sensory evaluation of the wine before and after bottling by a 2-out-of-5 test could not detect the bottled wine. In fact, concentrations of respective aroma compounds remained below the analytical limit of detection or way below their respective sensory
thresholds. In conclusion, despite of migration of aroma compounds into the sealing of a bottling line, execution of GMP cleaning and dilution effects in the subsequently filled wine prevented any aroma carry-over of sensory significance. Thus, a potential analytical determination of aroma traces would not lead to legal prosecution.


Publication date: June 24, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Poster


Gottmann Jörg1, Vestner Jochen1 and Fischer Ulrich1

1Dienstleistungszentrum Ländlicher Raum (DLR) Rheinpfalz, Institute for Viticulture and Oenology, Breitenweg 71, 67435 Neustadt an der Weinstraße, Germany

Contact the author


aroma carry-over, odor detection threshold, odor activity value, cleaning, aromatized wines, sensory evaluation


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

The effects of cane girdling on berry texture properties and the concentration of some aroma compounds in three table grape cultivars

The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

Application of a fluorescence-based method to evaluate the ripening process and quality of Pinot Blanc grape

The chemical composition of grape berries at harvest is one of the most important factors that should be considered to produce high quality wines. Among the different chemical classes which characterize the grape juice, the polyphenolic compound, such as flavonoids, contribute to the final taste and color of wines. Recently, an innovative non-destructive method, based on chlorophyll fluorescence, was developed to estimate the phenolic maturity of red grape varieties through the evaluation of anthocyanins accumulated in the berry skin. To date, only few data are available about the application of this method on white grape varieties.

Different yield regulation strategies in semi-minimal-pruned hedge (SMPH) and impact on bunch architecture

Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.