IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Optimization Of Glutathione Extraction From White Wine Lees By Doelhert Matrix

Optimization Of Glutathione Extraction From White Wine Lees By Doelhert Matrix


Glutathione (L-g-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) is a tripeptide which contains three constitutive amino acids: glutamate, cysteine and glycine. It is present in plants and foods, and fruits like grapes. In must, wine or even yeast, glutathione can be found under its reduced (GSH) or oxidized form (GSSG) [1,2].  Many studies have proven that GSH plays a key role in wine quality and longevity [3]. It is well proved that during winemaking, particularly during wine aging on lees, the GSH concentration in wine increases and protects it from oxidation phenomena [4]. Nevertheless, the amount of GSH present in wine lees is often unknown and the choice of operating conditions (amount of lees and aging time) remains empirical. The aim of this study was to propose an optimized method to extract and to quantify the GSH potential of wine lees. In order to assess the main parameters affecting GSH extraction, the type of solvent, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio were investigated. A Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by Doehlert matrix, an useful tool for optimizing specific compound extraction, was applied to optimize GSH extraction from white lees. The results show that water is a suitable solvent for GSH extraction and that the solid-liquid ratio (< 15 g/L) and the extraction time (< 1h) are the main parameters that influence GSH extraction from lees. This approach was extended to the analysis of GSH present in enological product as yeast derivatives. This work in very helpful for developing a cost effective process for extraction of GSH from winemaking wastes as well as to analyze the GSH evolution in lees during winemaking in order to control operating condition of wine aging.


[1] Amir B.A.  and Ghobadi S., 2016. Studies on oxidants and antioxidants with a brief glance at their relevance to the immune system. Life Science, 146:163-73.
[2] Foyer C. and Noctor G., 2005 . Oxidant and antioxidant signalling in plants: a re-evaluation of the concept of oxidative stress in a physiological context. Plant Cell and Environemental, 28, 8: 1056-1071.
[3] Pons A., Lavigne V., Darriet P. and  Dubourdieu D., 2015. Glutathione preservation during winemaking with vitis vinifera white varieties: example of sauvignon blanc grapes. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 66- 2: 187-194.
[4] Lavigne, V. and Dubourdieu, D. 2002. Role of glutathione on development of aroma defects in dry white wines.  In 13th International Enology Symposium (Montpellier).


Publication date: June 24, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Poster


Nioi Claudia1, Ren Yi1, Hastoy Xavier1 and Redon Pascaline 

1Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, UMR OENOLOGIE (OENO)1366 Univ. Bordeaux, INRAE, Bordeaux INP

Contact the author


Glutathione, Extraction, factorial design, Doelhert matrix, wine lees


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Influenza dell’esposizione del vigneto sulla maturazione dell’uva

Lo studio è stato condotto in vigneti commerciali di Vitis vinifera cv Nebbiolo localizzati in Piemonte, Italia del Nord-Ovest, intorno alla sommità di una collina. L’obiettivo dello studio è stato di determinare come l’esposizione del vigneto possa influenzare il comportamento vegetativo della vite, il manifestarsi delle fasi fenologiche, e la cinetica di maturazione dell’uva con particolare riguardo all’accumulo di antociani e flavonoli.

Polyphenol targeted and untargeted metabolomics on rosé wines : impact of protein fining on polyphenolic composition and color

Color is one of the key elements in the marketing of rosé wines[1]. Their broad range of color is due to the presence of red pigments (i.e. anthocyanins and their derivatives) and yellow pigments, likely including polyphenol oxidation products. Clarifying agents are widely used in the winemaking industry to enhance wine stability and to modulate wine color by binding and precipitating polyphenols[2]. During this study, the impact of four different fining agents (i.e. two vegetal proteins, potatoe and pea proteins, an animal protein, casein, and a synthetic polymer, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, PVPP) on Syrah Rose wine color and phenolic composition (especially pigments) was investigated. Color was characterized by spectrophotometry analysis using the CIELab system in addition to absorbance data. Fining using PVPP had the highest impact on redness (a*) and lightness (L*) parameters, whereas patatin strongly reduced the yellow component (b*) of the wine color. In parallel, the concentration of 125 phenolic compounds including 85 anthocyanins and derived pigments was determined by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to elestrospray ionisaion triple-quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-ESI-MS) in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring mode[3] .

Effects of stress memory on grapevine resilience in response to recurrent drought and recovery events 

Plants have evolved different strategies to cope with environmental stresses and, although still debated, it was observed that they can remember past stress occurrence.
Anatomical and physiological adjustments have been observed in different grapevine cultivars after repeated drought exposure, however epigenetic, transcriptional and biochemical changes associated with drought-primed ecological memory have been poorly studied.
This work was conceived to test whether exposure to recurring events of mild drought could prime vines to endure severe drought stress. Particularly, we investigated whether the expected improved stress tolerance of Vitis vinifera cv Nebbiolo plants subjected over years to moderate and long-lasting water stress events (WS-primed) depended on molecular memory phenomena or on resetting of stress-induced signals.

Changing the scale of characterization of a wine area: from a single protected designation of origin to a vineyard Loire Valley observatory (viLVO)

Terroir is increasingly important today in wine markets. In a large wine production area such as the Loire Valley, the whole territories/terroirs can be distinguished according to different combinations of geological, soil, climatic and landscape features but are also characterized by their differences and likenesses in terms of combinations of terroir units and practices.

Environmental and viticultural practice effects on the phenolic composition of grapes: impact on wine sensory properties

Grape phenolic compounds are located in the internal layers of grape skins and seeds. They are synthesized via the phenyl-propanoid biosynthetic pathway which is modulated by both biotic and abiotic factors.