IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Does Dekkera/Brettanomyces wine spoilage raise the risk of biogenic amines intake? A screening in Portuguese red wines

Does Dekkera/Brettanomyces wine spoilage raise the risk of biogenic amines intake? A screening in Portuguese red wines

Abstract

Wine quality and safety are the main concerns of consumers and health agencies. Biogenic amines and polyamines, depending on their concentration and on individuals, in wine can constitute a potential public health concern due to their physiological and toxicological effects. Biogenic amines can be present in grapes, such as putrescine, spermidine, and spermine [1] or formed by microorganisms during the winemaking process such as histamine, cadaverine, hexylamine, and ethylamine [2]. Histamine is one of the targeted toxins by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Safety Authority. Dekkera/Brettanomyces, a wine spoilage yeast, can produce biogenic amines in grape juice [3]. Diamines can produce carcinogenic nitrosamines by reaction with nitrite. Biogenic amines are important causes of wine intolerance [4], producing intoxication symptoms.
The sensitivity to biogenic amines depends on insufficient amino oxidase activity, genetic predisposition, alcohol, acetaldehyde, gastrointestinal disease, or inhibition by other amines. Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that, susceptible persons who are immune-compromised and seniors, may exhibit intolerance to even low levels of biogenic amines and suffer more severe symptoms, these persons are increasing in developed countries. Therefore, factors that influence biogenic amines concentrations are of utmost importance for consumer safety, mainly for susceptible persons. The main objective of this study was to quantify biogenic amines and polyamines in industrially produced red wines available in Portuguese wineries. As well as to understand the impact of the spoilage yeasts Dekkera/Brettanomyces in the biogenic amines and polyamines concentrations. Wine sampling was carried out using a maximum variance/heterogeneous purposive non-probability technique. Ethylphenols were determined by GC-MS and biogenic amines and polyamines were determined by dispersive solid-phase extraction and HPLC-DAD after derivatization with benzoyl chloride. To better understand the real input of Dekkera/Brettanomyces activity in these compounds, a set of 79 Portuguese red wines produced at an industrial scale from 2012 to 2016 vintage were analyzed. A total of nine amines have been detected that range from 19.6 to 331 mg/L and concentrations of 4-ethylphenol of 4.5–5604 μg/L and of 4-ethylguaiacol of 2.3–831.2 μg/L [5]. The most abundant amines on average were putrescine followed by histamine and cadaverine. Simultaneous determination of biogenic amines and volatile phenols in industrial produced red wines permitted to conclude that the wine spoilage activity of Dekkera/Brettanomyces with the production of volatile phenols do not significantly contribute to biogenic amines increase and consequently intake by the consumers. Biogenic amines need to be controlled in order to ensure high levels of wine safety and quality to reduce risk to more vulnerable wine consumers.

References

[1] Bauza et al. Food Chemistry, 105 (2007), pp. 405-413.
[2] Anín-Azpilicueta et al. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48 (3) (2008), pp. 257-275.
[3] Caruso et al., World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 18 (2002), pp. 159-163.
[4] Konakovsky et al. Food Additives & Contaminants, 28 (4) (2011), pp. 408-416.
[5] Filipe-Ribeiro et al. LWT – Food Science and Technology 115 (2019) pp.108488.

DOI:

Publication date: June 24, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Poster

Authors

Filipe-Ribeiro Luís1, Milheiro Juliana1, Ferreira Leonor C.1, Correia Elisete2, Cosme Fernanda1 and M. Nunes Fernando

1Chemistry Research Centre-Vila Real (CQ-VR), Food and Wine Chemistry Lab, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro
2Center for Computational and Stochastic Mathematics (CEMAT), Department of Mathematics, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro

Contact the author

Keywords

Red wine; Biogenic amines; Dekkera/Brettanomyces; Ethylphenols; Histamine

Tags

IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Vertical cordon training system enhances yield and delays ripening in cv. Maturana Blanca

The growing interest in minority grape varieties is due to their potential for adaptation to global warming and their oenological capabilities. However, the cultivation of these varieties has often been limited due to their low economic efficiency. One such example is Maturana Blanca, a recently recovered and authorized minority grape variety in the DOCa Rioja region, known for its remarkable oenological potential but low productivity. This study aimed to increase the yield of Maturana Blanca by implementing the vertical cordon training system, which allowed for a higher number of buds per plant and an increased cluster count per vine.

Variability in intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi) of eight red varieties grown in the center of the Iberian Peninsula during an atypical vintage year

The study was performed in the summer of 2007, the point of confluence of a rather atypical vintage year in the area with abnormally low temperatures after a very humid spring

Effects of graft quality on growth and grapevine-water relations

Climate change is challenging viticulture worldwide compromising its sustainability due to warmer temperatures and the increased frequency of extreme events. Grafting Vitis vinifera L.

Bio‐metaethics viticulture proposed by the Giesco. Direct charter with producers. Example of evaluation of training systems

The key points of the current GiESCO charter ‘BIO‐MetaEthics’ are exposed. The new development in cooperation with Giovanni Cargnello is to apply the principles and the content into the practice by establishing a direct contract with producers and other actors of the wine sector. An evaluation sheet is proposed and tested in a new advanced vineyard. For illustrating the methodology of evaluation, the example of the choice of the training systems is detailed on a wide range of situations. 

TerraClim, an online spatial decision support system for the wine industry

Climate projections for the future suggest favourable conditions for some wine producing regions, but challenging conditions for others. For instance, temperature increases are likely to shift grapevine phenology, ripening and harvest dates, and potentially affect grape quality and yield.