IVAS 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Botrytis cinerea: Coconut or Catastrophe? Quantification of γ-Nonalactone in Botrytised and Non-Botrytised New Zealand Wines

Botrytis cinerea: Coconut or Catastrophe? Quantification of γ-Nonalactone in Botrytised and Non-Botrytised New Zealand Wines


g-Nonalactone has been identified as a significant contributor to the aroma profile of a range of wines and is associated with stonefruit and coconut descriptors. The exact route of g-nonalactone biosynthesis in wine has not been fully elucidated; however, precursors including 4-oxononanoic acid, linoleic acid, 13-hydroxyoctadeca-9,11-dienoic acid (13-HODE) and 9-hydroxyoctadeca-10,12-dienoic acid (9-HODE) have been identified in incubation experiments. Wines produced from grapes infected with “noble rot” caused by Botrytis cinerea fungus generally show higher concentrations of g-nonalactone compared to non-botrytised white wines, but the relative contribution of potential formation pathways has not been elucidated. To assess the effect of linoleic acid on the production of g-nonalactone in wine, fermentations with and without added linoleic acid were carried out in synthetic grape must (SGM) at 28 °C using commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118. Prior to g-nonalactone quantitation in the finished wines and in a subset of six Australian and New Zealand commercial wines, several routes for the synthesis of a deuterated analogue of g-nonalactone were attempted, before the deuterated d6-analogue of g-nonalactone from its non-deuterated analogue was produced successfully. Subsequently, attempts were made to utilise the d6-analogue as an internal standard for the measurement of g-nonalactone using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. However, the synthetic deuterated g-nonalactone analogue proved to be an inappropriate internal standard for this purpose, due to incomplete incorporation of deuterium atoms. 2-Octanol was instead used as a surrogate internal standard. g-Nonalactone was successfully identified (above the limit of detection, 4.12g/L) in two commercial New Zealand botrytised wine samples, and one fermentation sample to which linoleic acid (132 mg/L) had been added. This suggests a possible link between the effect of Botrytis cinerea and/or linoleic acid, and increased levels of g-nonalactone in wine. The promising results in these preliminary experiments have led to an improved internal standard being sought out for the quantification of g-nonalactone in wine, and further investigation of its biosynthesis. A 13C4-labelled g-nonalactone analogue was successfully synthesized based on a previous method, with four 13C atoms being introduced into the molecule via two Wittig olefination steps. This standard will be used for a much larger survey of approximately 40 botrytised and non-botrytised New Zealand wines, in addition to further fermentation experiments assessing the effects of the addition of a wider range of putative precursors.


Publication date: June 24, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Poster


Miller Gillean1, Fedrizzi Bruno1, Barker David1, Pilkington Lisa1 and Deed Rebecca1

1The University of Auckland, School of Chemical Sciences

Contact the author


Lactones, Botrytis, White wine, New Zealand, GC-MS


IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Polyphenol targeted and untargeted metabolomics on rosé wines : impact of protein fining on polyphenolic composition and color

Color is one of the key elements in the marketing of rosé wines[1]. Their broad range of color is due to the presence of red pigments (i.e. anthocyanins and their derivatives) and yellow pigments, likely including polyphenol oxidation products. Clarifying agents are widely used in the winemaking industry to enhance wine stability and to modulate wine color by binding and precipitating polyphenols[2]. During this study, the impact of four different fining agents (i.e. two vegetal proteins, potatoe and pea proteins, an animal protein, casein, and a synthetic polymer, polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, PVPP) on Syrah Rose wine color and phenolic composition (especially pigments) was investigated. Color was characterized by spectrophotometry analysis using the CIELab system in addition to absorbance data. Fining using PVPP had the highest impact on redness (a*) and lightness (L*) parameters, whereas patatin strongly reduced the yellow component (b*) of the wine color. In parallel, the concentration of 125 phenolic compounds including 85 anthocyanins and derived pigments was determined by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to elestrospray ionisaion triple-quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-ESI-MS) in the Multiple Reaction Monitoring mode[3] .

Nuove tecnologie per la viticoltura in zone di alto valore ambientale

Gli autori presentano gli ultimi risultati delle ricerche dei DIAF sulla meccanizzazione delle operazioni colorali in zone di difficile accesso e transitabilità quali le aree marginali, i terreni terrazzati e altre realtà agricole caratterizzate da spazi estremamente ristretti (vivaismo, orticoltura, ecc.).

Influenza delle componenti climatiche e pedologiche sulla variabilità dei contenuti polifenolici in alcuni ambienti vitati della DOCG Sagrantino di Montefalco

Obiettivo del progetto è la valutazione dell’influenza climatica e pedologica dell’areale di Montefalco sul vitigno Sagrantino, ponendo particolare attenzione alla componente polifenolica e antocianica. Sono stati quindi messi a confronto, a partire dal 2001 fino al 2008, sei differenti zone tutte situate all’interno dell’areale DOCG Sagrantino di Montefalco; per ciascun vigneto alla vendemmia sono state effettuate analisi sui parametri analitici e sul contenuto polifenolico e antocianico delle uve. Ognuna delle sei zone è inoltre stata caratterizzata dal punto di vista pedoclimatico, valutando l’influenza del clima e della tipologia di suolo sui parametri analitici presi in considerazione.

Terroir effects on wine aromatic metabolomics in the eastern foot of Helan Mountain, Ningxia, China

Aim: The eastern foot of Helan Mountain, Ningxia, China is one of the most important wine production regions in China and grape cultivation has spread in several sub-regions with different soils and cultivars. Large diversity in wine aromas have been observed at Ningxia region but which terroir factors drive those diversity in aromas remain to uncover. This study aims to investigate the impacts of grape varieties and soil chemical properties on wine aromas at Ningxia, in order to characterize the aromatic typicality of Ningxia wines and provide foundation for developing a ‘Protected Designation of Origin’ system. 


Cognac is a famous spirit produced in southwest France in the region of the eponymous town from wines mainly from Vitis vinifera cv. Ugni blanc. This variety gives very acidic and poorly aromatic base wines for distillation which are produced according to a very specific procedure. Grapes are picked at low sugar concentrations ranging 13-21 °Brix and musts with high turbidity (>500 NTU) are fermented without sulphite addition [1]. Fermentative aromas, as esters and higher alcohols, are currently the main quality markers considered in Cognac spirits.