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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Skin And Seed Extracts Differently Behave Towards Salivary Proteins

Skin And Seed Extracts Differently Behave Towards Salivary Proteins

Abstract

Background: Polyphenols extracted from skins and seeds showed different sensory attributes including astringency and bitterness. In previous studies, it has been demonstrated that extracts obtained either from skins or seeds interact differently with salivary proteins. Red grape winemaking consists of a maceration of the whole berries in which both skins and seeds are mixed together; however, no information on the mutual influence that skins and seeds could have on the reactivity towards saliva of hydroalcoholic extracts is known. In this study, five different  wine model solutions were prepared: the first one contained only skins (Sk), the second one contained only seeds (Sd) and the remaining three contained different skin/seed ratios, as detailed below: A (ratio 2:1 skin : seed), B(ratio 1:1 skin : seed) and C (ratio 1:2 skin: seed).

Methods: HPLC analyses were performed to determine the content of total native anthocyanins, acetaldehyde and polymeric pigments. Iron reactive phenolics, BSA reactive tannins (BSArT), vanillin reactive flavans (VRF) were also determined. The potential astringency of red samples was evaluated in vitro by the Saliva Precipitation index (SPI), which measures the reactivity of salivary proteins towards wine polyphenols.

Results: The results obtained in this experiment highlighted important differences in the behavior of the samples as a function of the different skin:seed ratio. When skins and seeds  were simultaneously present (samples A, B and C), a significant lower content of anthocyanins with respect to Sk was observed. This was likely due to a possible adsorption of pigments on cell walls contained in pomaces. As the amount  of seeds increased in the solutions containing also skins, the content of VRF, BSArT, PP and acetaldehyde linearly increased. After 24 months of aging under controlled conditions, all the trends observed at 0 time were confirmed and appeared to be enhanced. Concerning the interactions toward salivary proteins, as expected, sample Sd showed the highest SPI. Surprisingly, when skins were added to a model solution containing seeds, a decrease of SPI occurred, although VRF and BSArT increased. This suggests that  anthocyanins and polymeric pigments in A, B and C samples determined a lower reactivity of compounds contained in the whole solution towards saliva proteins. SPI values are not correlated to the amount of VRF and BSArT in the samples.

Conclusion:

Results of our study highlighted not only the important role of the skin:seed ratio in regulating the extraction of compounds from berries, but also that of anthocyanins extracted from skins in decreasing the reactivity of grape compounds towards saliva.

DOI:

Publication date: June 24, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

Type: Poster

Authors

Errichiello Francesco1, Guerriero Antonio1, Picariello Luigi1, Coppola Francesca1, Rinaldi Alessandra1,2, Forino Martino1 and Gambuti Angelita1

1Department of Agricultural Sciences, Grape and Wine Science Division, University of Naples Federico II
2Biolaffort, 126 Quai de la Souys, 33100 Bordeaux, France

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Keywords

skin/seed extract; anthocyanins; polymeric pigments; astringency.

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IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series

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IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 IVAS 9 IVAS 2022 9 Skin And Seed Extracts Differently Behave Towards Salivary Proteins

Skin And Seed Extracts Differently Behave Towards Salivary Proteins

Abstract

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DOI:

Publication date: June 24, 2022

Issue: IVAS 2022

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IVAS 2022 | IVES Conference Series

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Related articles…

Physiological and growth reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt to row orientation and soil water status

Advanced knowledge on grapevine row orientation is required to improve establishment, management and outcomes of vineyards on terroirs with different environmental conditions (climate, soil, topography) and in view of a future change to more extreme climatic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the combined effect of row orientation, plant water status and ripeness level on the physiological and viticultural reaction of Shiraz/101-14 Mgt.

Effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California

San Joaquin Valley accounts for 40% of wine grape acreage and produces 70% of wine grape in California. Fruit quality is one of most important factors which impact the economical sustainability of farming wine grapes in this region. Due to the recent drought and expected labor cost increase, the wine industry is thrilled to understand how to improve fruit quality while maintaining the yield with less water and labor input. The present study aims to study the interactive effects of mechanical leafing and deficit irrigation on yield and berry compositions of Cabernet Sauvignon grown in warm climate of California.

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The marketability of the table grapes is highly influenced by the consumer demand; therefore the market value of the table grapes is mainly characterized by its berry size, colour, taste and texture. Girdling could cause accumulation of several components in plants above the ringing of the phloem including clusters and resulting improved maturity. The aim of the experiments was to examine the effect of girdling on berry texture characteristics and aroma concentration.

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Yields in the novel viticulture training system Semi-Minimal-Pruned Hedge (SMPH) are generally higher compared to the traditional Vertical Shoot Positioning (VSP). Excessive yields have a negative impact on the vine and wine quality, which can result in substantial losses in yield in subsequent vintages (alternate bearing) or penalties in fruit quality. Therefore yield regulation is essential. The bunch architecture in SMPH differs from VSP. Generally there is a higher amount but smaller bunches with lower single berry weights in SMPH compared to VSP.