Effect of Yeast Derivative Products on Aroma compounds retention in model wine
For many years, enological research has developed commercial formulates of yeast derivatives as stabilizing agents and technological adjuvants in winemaking. These products are obtained from yeast by autolytic, plasmolytic, or hydrolytic processes that liberate many macromolecules from the yeast cell, principally polysaccharides and oligosaccharides and most specifically mannoproteins that are well known for their ability to improve tartaric stability and to reduce the occurrence of protein hazes (Ángeles Pozo-Bayón et al., 2009; Charpentier & Feuillat, 1992; Morata et al., 2018; Palomero et al., 2009). The use of these products is now well developed in enological practices but a great concern has emerged on their effect on the sensorial characteristics of the wine. Indeed, it is well reported that wine macromolecules such as polysaccharides, mannoproteins, and polyphenols can interact with wine aromas, modifying their volatility and thus their sensorial impact to the overall bouquet of the wine (Comuzzo et al., 2006, 2011; Lubbers, Charpentier, et al., 1994; Lubbers, Voilley, et al., 1994; Pozo-Bayón et al., 2009; Rodríguez-Bencomo et al., 2014).
Our study aimed at getting a better microscale insight into the impact of yeast derivative products (YDP) on volatile compounds in wine. The impact of inactivated dry yeast, autolysate, cell walls, mannoproteins, and protein extract on the partition coefficient of six volatile compounds (isoamyl acetate, hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, linalol, 2 phenyl-ethanol, β-ionone) was studied in a model wine, at different aging times and under oenological conditions.
The originality of this work concerns the development of a Solid Phase Micro Extraction method for partition coefficient measurement that keeps the integrity of the thermodynamic of the sample during the phase of extraction. In the experimental conditions used in this study (YDP at 200 g/hL), the results obtained clearly show a retention effect of YDP on most of the aroma compounds tested. This retention was modulated by the nature of theYDP, the nature of the aroma, and the time of ageing. Further work will aim at getting a better understanding of the nature and the strength of interactions involved in the retention phenomena.
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Issue: IVAS 2022
1UMR 1083 Sciences for Enology, INRAE-Montpellier SupAgro-University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.
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aroma, retention, wine, yeast products