Terroir 2020 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 Adaptation to climate change by determining grapevine cultivar differences using temperature-based phenology models

Adaptation to climate change by determining grapevine cultivar differences using temperature-based phenology models

Abstract

OENO One – Special issue

Grapevine phenology is advancing with increased temperatures associated with climate change. This may result in higher fruit sugar concentrations at harvest and/or earlier compressed harvests and changes in the synchrony of sugar with other fruit metabolites. One adaptation strategy that growers may use to maintain typicity of wine style is to change cultivars. This approach may enable fruit to develop under temperature conditions similar to those typically associated with that wine style. We demonstrate that Grapevine Flowering Véraison (GFV) and the Grapevine Sugar Ripeness (GSR) models can be implemented as a means of testing the suitability of alternative cultivars as an adaptation strategy to climate change.

Previous viticulture temperature-based models were reviewed and compared with the GFV and GSR models. The results from the original GFV and GSR models were combined to evaluate the classification of the 20 most represented cultivars. The GFV and GSR models were tested for three new historic and contrasting datasets: 31 cultivars in the VitAdapt collection, Bordeaux; Chardonnay, Champagne; and Sauvignon blanc, Marlborough. Errors of predictions were less than a week for flowering and véraison, and within 7-10 days for the time to reach relevant target sugar concentrations for these datasets. Future GFV and GSR projections for Chardonnay resulted in an advance at a rate of one to two days per decade for flowering and véraison, and two to five days per decade for time to 170 g/L sugar concentration for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 respectively.

Therefore, the GFV and GSR models are highly accurate and easy-to-use temperature-based phenological models for predicting flowering, véraison and time to target sugar concentrations when tested under new conditions. The models can be applied for characterising new cultivars, and assessing thermal time to flowering, véraison and different sugar targets. They can be used to assess cultivar performance in winegrowing areas worldwide under current or future climate conditions. The classifications therefore enable growers and researchers to compare the phenology of cultivars in a region today and to consider adaptation options: selecting later ripening cultivars or choosing alternative sites in the context of climate change.

DOI:

Publication date: March 25, 2021

Issue: Terroir 2020

Type : Video

Authors

Amber K. Parker1 , Iñaki García de Cortázar-Atauri2 , Michael C.T. Trought1, 3, Agnès Destrac4 , Rob Agnew3 , Andrew Sturman5 and Cornelis van Leeuwen4

1 Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
2 INRAE, US 1116 AGROCLIM, F-84914 Avignon, France
3 The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Ltd, Marlborough Research Centre, PO Box 845, Blenheim 7240, New Zealand
4 EGFV, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRAE, Université de Bordeaux, ISVV, Chemin de Leysotte, 33883, Villenave d’Ornon, France
5 School of Earth and Environment, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand

Contact the author

Keywords

Grapevine, phenology, flowering, véraison, sugar, temperature, model, climate change, adaptation, classification

Tags

IVES Conference Series | Terroir 2020

Citation

Related articles…

The invasive seaweed Rugulopteryx okamurae: an innovative plant protective extract

Grapevine downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is a devastating disease worldwide. Most commercially important cultivars of the European grapevine are highly susceptible and therefore require the recurrent application of synthetic fungicides to control the disease, copper being the most frequently used. However, with European Union goals to lower their usage, there is a need to develop innovative and sustainable strategies. In this respect, seaweeds have proven to have great potential as phytosanitary agents, in addition to promoting plant growth and stress-tolerance.

Genomic characterization of terpene biosynthetic genes in seven Vitis vinifera L. varieties 

Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are a fruit crop of high economic significance globally. Each grapevine cultivar is characterized by its distinctive grape aroma, affecting the wine quality. In several cultivars, the aroma is shaped by terpenoid (mono- and sesqui-terpenoids). Their profile is controlled by terpene synthases (TPS), which are part of a largely expanded gene family. How the variation in TPS copy number and sequence among cultivars determines terpenoid profiles of grapes remains largely unexplored. We annotated TPS in the haplotypes of seven genomes (Riesling, Albariño, Fiano, Gewürztraminer, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Viognier) using BLAST, GMAP, PFAM, and phylogenetic analyses. Further, TPS expression patterns and terpenoid accumulation during berry development and ripening were characterized using RNA-Seq and SPME/GC-MS platforms, respectively. Variation in TPS copy number exists among cultivars. Specifically, the TPS counts span a range of 251 to 150 for Riesling and Fiano, respectively, when considering combined haplotypes within each cultivar. Total terpenoid accumulation patterns throughout development were consistent among the five aromatic cultivars, marked by high concentrations in flowers, followed by a decline and subsequent rise during berry development and ripening, respectively. Conversely, non-aromatic cultivars exhibited no substantial increase in terpenoid concentration during ripening. Transcriptome and network analyses are currently employed to determine which TPS are expressed in the berry and determine the terpenoid profile of the specific cultivar. These findings shed light on the genomic determinants of grape aroma in major cultivars, and allow future studies focused on cultivar-specific responses of terpenoid biosynthesis to environmental stresses.

Etude des effets millésime, situation et sol à partir d’un observatoire du Gamay en beaujolais

Des expérimentations sur Gamay ont été réalisées en Beaujolais de 2000 à 2006 sur 10 parcelles d’AOC différentes. De nombreuses mesures ont été effectuées à différents stades (vigne, baies récoltées, vinification et bouteille avec ou sans vieillissement). Ces mesures sont également de natures différentes (données phénologiques, analytiques, dégustation). Des analyses de la composition des sols sont également disponibles.

Contribution to the sensory and volatile characterization of four traditional Galician red varieties

Galicia, a region sited in the northwest of Spain, is one of the most important wine production area, with five Appellations of Origin Controlled (AOC).

Outils de caracterisation et zonage des paysages viticoles: application aux vignobles français

Un paysage viticole est une relation entre des formes, dimension objective, et la perception que nous en avons, dimension subjective, émotionnelle. La viticulture n’est pas seulement productrice d’un vin, elle contribue également à façonner le paysage. Pourtant, jusqu’à présent, la connaissance des terroirs était principalement basée sur la caractérisation de leur aptitude à produire des vins de qualité.