Regionality, frequently called terroir, is often used to market wines from different locations. Savatiano (Vitis Vinifera L.), is the dominant indigenous variety of the Mesogeia – Attiki region, reaching a percentage of 70% of the total vine cultivation, and being the most widely planted variety in Greece. In this context, this research focuses on the evaluation of the impact of different terroirs within the PGI Attiki zone on the aromatic profile of Savatiano.
Grapes from ten vineyards in the PGI zone of Attica were harvested and the wines were produced with a common vinification protocol. GC-Olfactometry was used to identify the impact aroma compounds. The final aromatic character of the wines was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). In addition, all wines were evaluated by a trained panel using the descriptive sensory analysis method.
In terms of the volatile characterization of the wines, a total of 28 compounds were analyzed, showing a significant trend between wines from the different subregions of the Attic vineyard. Esters appeared to be clearly distinct between the wines from the different areas, confirming the variability in volatile production among the subregions of the same GI. For instance, Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that 2 phenyl ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate and ethyl decanoate, enhancing the fruity character of wines, were able to divide the wines into two different groups. When the chemical and sensory data were combined, the separation of the regions became even clearer. The results of the sensory evaluation confirmed the variability and regional differences affecting wine aroma, and a relationship was found between characteristic aroma terms and the different regions. The multivariate analysis of the data differentiated the Savatiano wines according to sensory attributes: Wines from the ten different regions of Attica were classified into three groups characterized by fruity – floral aromas, herbaceous aromas, and other (nutty, burned, yeasty) aromas.
Our study, based on a combination of sensory markers and volatile profiles, revealed the impact of sub-regional typicality on wine aroma. Human intervention seems to play an important role on sub-regional typicality, which therefore cannot be determined by the geographical origin of the fruit alone. Undoubtedly, further research is needed on the differences between wine styles in different wine regions, vintages, viticultural and winemaking practices, but the results of this work are promising and provide a great approach to characterize the PGI Savatiano wines of Attica.
Authors: Lola Despina1, Goulioti Elli1, Miliordos Dimitros-Evangelos1 and Kotseridis Yorgos1
1Laboratory of Enology and Alcoholic Drinks, Agricultural University of Athens
*corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: Savatiano, aroma, sensory analysis, GC-MS, terroir