WAC 2022 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 WAC 9 WAC 2022 9 3 - WAC - Posters 9 Influence of cork density upon cork stopper resiliency after opening a sparkling wine bottle

Influence of cork density upon cork stopper resiliency after opening a sparkling wine bottle


After Champagne popping, the first consumer’s observation is the shape of the cork stopper. Consumers expect a “mushroom shape”. Nevertheless, we sometimes observe a “barrel” shape due to inappropriate cork’s elastic properties. The aim of this study was to follow the loss of cork stopper resiliency during 26 months according to the density (d) of the cork in contact with the wine. 1680 disks were weighed + measured and divided in 6 density classes: High (H1 d= 0,19 g/cm3 – H2 d= 0,21 g/cm3), Medium (M, not studied) and Low (L1 d= 0,13 g/cm3 – L2 d= 0,14 g/cm3). Then, 138 technical cork stoppers were produced for each of the 4 studied groups. These corks consisted of an agglomerated natural cork granule body to which two natural cork disks were glued. A total of 552 bottles of sparkling wine were closed with these corks and open after 13, 19 and 26 months to follow cork resiliencies. Wine bottles were stored horizontally; thus, the external natural cork disks were in contact to the wine. During the 26 months of the study, highly significant differences (ANOVA) were observed between the resiliencies of H-corks and those of L-corks, whatever the time studied. The diameters of the L-corks were statistically higher than those of the H-corks. No significant differences were observed between L1 and L2 corks. At the opposite, differences were noted betweenThomas Salmon H1 and H2 at 19 and 26 months. This could be explained by the heterogeneity of the resiliency that was higher for H-corks than for L-corks. Finally, the corks were visually (12 judges) divided in 3 classes corresponding to high (expected mushroom shape, i.e high resiliency), medium (irregular shape of the disk in contact with the wine and/or low premature deterioration of the expected resiliency) and low qualities (barrel shape = premature deterioration of the resiliency). The corks were also divided in 3 categories corresponding to 0-33%, 34-66% and 67-100% resiliency. A strong correlation was noted between the visual and the instrumental categorizations. This study strongly evidenced 1) the importance of the cork density on the cork stopper behaviour when opening the bottle and 2) the interest of an instrumental approach reflecting the consumer’s perception.


Publication date: June 27, 2022

Issue: WAC 2022

Type: Article


Thomas Salmon, Jordi Rosello, Alexandre Marcoult, Chantal Prat, Richard Marchal

Presenting author

Thomas Salmon – University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne – University of Haute-Alsace

Francisco Oller S. A. Cassà de la Selva, Province of Girona, Spain | Oller & Cie – SIBEL, Reims, France | Francisco Oller S. A. Cassà de la Selva, Province of Girona, Spain | Laboratoire d’Oenologie, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims – Université de Haute-Alsace, Colmar, France, ,

Contact the author


cork stopper, cork density, resiliency, sparkling wine, visual categorization


IVES Conference Series | WAC 2022


Related articles…

The potential of some native varieties of Argentina for the production of sparkling wines. Effect of lees contact time 

Grapevine varieties from South-America, commonly known as criollas, originated because of the natural crossbreeding of grapevine varieties brought by the Spaniards. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of some varieties to produce sparkling wines considering the effect of lees contact time. The following varieties were used: Moscatel Rosado, Criolla Chica, Pedro Gimenez, Blanca Oval, Canelón, and the European variety Chardonnay (control), planted in the ampelographic collection of EEA Mendoza INTA (Argentina). Pilot-scale vinifications were carried out to obtain the base wines, in 20 L glass containers. The second fermentation was performed through the traditional method.

Effects of the addition of yeast derived products during aging in chardonnay sparkling winemaking

From the beginning of the yeast autolysis process, several interesting intracellular and cell wall constituyents are released to the media providing different characteristics to the wine, being this process extensively studied in sparkling wines due to their important contribution to their properties (1-2). Yeast derived products (YDs) try to emulate the natural yeast autolysis compounds release enhancing the organoleptic characteristics of resulting wines (2-3). This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of the addition of different YDs added to base wine on the chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of the resulting sparkling wines. METHODS: Chardonnay base wine was employed to carry out this study. Three experimental YDs were added at 5 and 10 g/hL to the tirage liqueur: a yeast autolysate (YA), a yeast protein extract (PE) and an inactivated dry yeast from Torulaspora delbrueckii, (TD), and two commercial specific inactivated dry yeast: OPTIMUM WHITE® (OW) and PURE-LONGEVITY®(PL). After second fermentation, measurements were carried out after 3, 6, 9 and 18 months of aging on lees. General enological parameters, proteins, polysaccharides (HPLC-DAD-RID), volatile compounds profile (GC-MS), foaming characteristics (Mosalux), and descriptive sensory analyses were carried out.

Exploring the resistance of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts to dehydration-rehydration processes

AIM: The use of non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeasts in multi-starter fermentations with S. cerevisiae is a trend in the wine industry, but the number of strains commercially available in a powder formulation, such as active dry yeasts (ADY), is still limited.

Polyphenolic profile and dietary fiber content of skins and seeds from unfermented and fermented grape pomace

The valorization of winemaking byproducts is subordinated to the knowledge of their chemical characteristics. This work concerned the determination of the polyphenolic profile and the dietary fiber content of skins and seeds from unfermented and fermented pomace of different cultivars (Moscato bianco, Cortese, Arneis, Pinot Noir, Barbera, Grignolino, Nebbiolo), sampled from some wineries in the Piedmont area (Italy) during the 2020 harvest.

Arsenic in soil, leaves, grapes and wines

The presence of arsenic in food and beverages creates concern because of the toxicity of this element, classified as carcinogenic in humans. The arsenic concentration in soil, vine leaves and berries