Soil and nutritional survey of Greek vineyards from the prefecture of Macedonia, Northern Greece, and from the island of Santorini
Context and purpose of the study-Vitis vinifera L. is one of the most important cultures for the soil and climate conditions of Northern Greece and Santorini. However, very little information is provided with regard to its nutritional requirements and critical levels of nutrient deficiencies and toxicities. The aim of this study was to provide an integrated nutritional survey for the Greek conditions of wine and table varieties.
Materials and Methods- During the period 2012-2017 a high number of soil and leaf samples were collected (from Western and Central Macedonia, and from Santorini) and analyzed, to determine soil fertility and nutrition of Greek vineyards.
Results- Soil results showed that pH varied from approximately 4 to 8.30, organic matter from 0.36% to 7.80%, NO3-N from 0.4 to 81.6 ppm, P from 0.4 to 206 ppm, and exchangeable K and Mg varied from 54 to approximately 1000 ppm, and from 13 to 1608 ppm, respectively. DTPA extractable Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu fluctuated from approximately 1 to 200 ppm, 0.10 to 40 ppm, 0.78 to 60 ppm, and from 0.30 to 176 ppm, respectively. Finally, extractable B varied from 0.10 to approximately 16 ppm. With regard to foliar nutrient concentrations, wine and table varieties from Central Macedonia showed leaf N levels from 2.3 to 3.3% dw, and from 1.92 to 3.02% dw, respectively. Phosphorus varied from 0.15 to 0.47% dw, and K from 0.40 to 1.86% dw, and from 0.66 to 1.95% dw for wine and table varieties, respectively. Foliar Ca for wine and table varieties varied from 1.15 to 3.26% dw, and from 0.67 to 2.84% respectively, while Mg fluctuated from 0.12 to 0.44% dw, and from 0.14 to 0.61% dw, respectively. Leaf B fluctuated from 12 to 86 ppm, and from 18 to 106 ppm, respectively. Foliar Zn for wine varieties varied from 7 to 77 ppm, and for table varieties fluctuated from 9 to 34 ppm. Manganese varied from 23 to 1622 ppm, while Fe and Cu fluctuated from 39 to 179 ppm, and from 7 to 1057 ppm, respectively. Based on these data and on the classification provided in literature, it can be concluded that approximately 75% of the vineyards from Western Macedonia showed slight N deficiency, while 20-75% suffered from severe K deficiency. In addition, 30-50% and 35-80% of the vineyards of Kastoria showed B and Zn inadequacy, respectively. Finally, in most cases, very high Mn and Cu levels were found. It is believed that these data offer a useful insight and provide a valuable agronomic tool towards a sustainable nutrient management in the Greek vineyards.
Issue: GiESCO 2019
Institute of Soil and Water Resources, Leoforos Georgikis Scholis Avenue, Thessaloniki (Thermi), 57001, Greece
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Vitis vinifera L., nutrient deficiency, nutrient toxicity, organic matter, wine varieties, table varieties