GiESCO 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 Under trellis cover crop induces grapevine tolerance to bunch rot

Under trellis cover crop induces grapevine tolerance to bunch rot

Abstract

Context and purpose of the study – Botrytis bunch rot occurrence is one of the most important limitations for the wine industry in humid environments. A positive correlation between grapevine growth and susceptibility to fungal pathogens has been found. In theory the effect of grapevine vegetative growth on bunch rot expression results from direct effects (cluster architecture, nitrogen status among others) and indirect ones (via microclimate). However, a reduction in bunch rot incidence can be achieved in some circumstances without major vine growth reduction. The present study was aimed to test the general hypothesis that bunch rot susceptibility is affected by vine vigor, but other factors associated with grapevine vegetative expression could be even more relevant.

Material and methods – The experiment was conducted over three growing seasons in Southern Uruguay. We tested Vertical Shoot Positioned (VSP) versus Lyra trellis systems with conventional flour management consisting alleyway tall fescue with 1.0 m wide weed-free strips under the trellis (VSP-H and Lyra-H), and VSP with under-trellis cover crop (VSP-UTCC). UTCC consists in the full cover of the vineyard soil with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). In all treatments, deficit drip irrigation was provided at mid-day stem potential (SWP) thresholds of -0.9 MPa. Treatments were arranged in a split-plot randomized block design with trellis system (Lyra vs VSP) as main plots and flour management schemes (H vs UTCC) as subplots. Shoot growth rate, SWP, berry size, berry composition (titratable acidity, Brix, and yeast available nitrogen) and bunch rot incidence and severity were monitored over the seasons, as well as final vine yield, cluster weights, berryfirmness and pruning weights.

Results – In VSP-H and Lyra-H treatments Botrytis bunch rot incidence progressively increased with pruning weight per meter of cordon length (PW/m). However, even associated with an increased number of shoots per vine, Lyra significantly reduce vine vigor, average disease occurrence was comparable between both trellis systems. Contrarily, bunch rot incidence was every season remarkably lower in VSP-UTCC compared to Herbicide treatments (Lyra-H and VSP-H) even when vegetative development (shoot elongation rate, PW/m, PAR%) and fruit maturation (TSS, titratable acidity) was compared to Lyra-H. Associated with berry weight, bunch size was significantly reduced by VSP-UTCC treatment.These may underline the important role of cluster architecture in the lower B. cinerea infection. However, the strong difference observed in disease occurrence between UTCC and H treatment in our study could not be explained by just this factor since UTCC also significantly affected other bunch rot infection triggers (reduced juice N levels and increased berry firmness). Botrytis bunch rot is a complex disease, and many of the three-way interactions (host, environment and pathogen) are poorly understood. Our results don’t allow to identify the specific mechanism by which UTCC induced a higher tolerance to botrytis bunch rot, however a clear effect on pathogen or host plant behavior was detected. Its seems to be more related to direct factors than indirect ones associated with canopy microclimate.

DOI:

Publication date: September 20, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2019

Type: Poster

Authors

Andrés CONIBERTI1*, Virginia FERRARI1, Edgardo DISEGNA1, Mario GARCIA PETILLO2, Alan N. LAKSO3

1 Programa Fruticultura, Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria, Canelones Uruguay
2 Departamento de Suelos y Aguas, Facultad de Agronomia, UdelaR., Montevideo, Uruguay
3 Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Cornell University. Geneva, NY USA

Contact the author

Keywords

Tannat, Botrytis bunch rot, under trellis cover crop, Fescue, vine vigor

Tags

GiESCO | GiESCO 2019 | IVES Conference Series

Citation

Related articles…

Application of ultrasonic and refractometric measurements in enological samples and related model solutions

AIM: The refractive index is a basic optical property of materials and a key tool for the determination of major components in musts, such as sugars

Soil proximal sensing provides direction in delineating plant water status of ‘crimson seedless’ (Vitis vinifera L.) vineyards

Crimson Seedless’ (Vitis vinifera L.) is a late-ripening, red seedless table grape cultivar with inadequate anthocyanin accumulation and less than ideal berry size issues

DETERMINATION OF FREE AMINO ACIDS, AMINO ACID POTENTIAL AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY IN THE LEES AND STILL WINES OF CHAMPAGNE

Prior to winemaking, organic or mineral nitrogen compound concentrations are usually measured in the vineyard and in grape musts. These indicators facilitate vine cultivation decisions, usually through yield or vigor. During vinification, yeast and bacteria metabolize nitrogen compounds in the musts in order to generate biomass. After fermentation, the microorganisms rerelease a part of this nitrogen as soluble compounds into the wines. Another part remains bound in the lees and can be lost during racking. The must’s natural nitrogen quantities, additional supplements during fermentation, and lees contact management enhance the release of nitrogen compounds to the wines. During ageing these nitrogen compounds – primarily the amino acids – are implicated in the generation of odorous compounds such as heterocycles(1).

Effect of oenological tannins on wine aroma before and after oxidation: a real-time study by coupling sensory (TDS) and chemical (PTR-ToF-MS) analyses

Polyphenols are important compounds involved in many chemical and sensory wine features. In winemaking, adding oenological tannins claims to have positive impacts on wine stability, protection from oxidation and aroma persistence. Polyphenols are antioxidant compounds by either scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species or chelating Fe2+ ions (1). However, as tannins oxidation leads to the formation of highly reactive species (i.e. ortho-quinones), it is still unclear if they have an effective role toward oxidation of wine aromas (2). In this work, we aim at studying the effect of two commercial tannins (proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins) on red wine flavour (mainly aroma) before and after air exposition.

Oenological potential of indigenous greek grape varieties and their clones

Vine clone selection aims at the survival of clones with particularly desireable attributes for the production of high quality wines. The purpose of this research was to study the enological potential of the clones of Greek indigenous grape varieties over two vintages, 2018 and 2019.
METHODS: Two clones of the white grape varieties Moschofilero (E26 and E27), Assyrtiko (E11 and 16), Roditis (25E16 and 02E1E21) and two clones of the red grape varieties Xinomavro (19 and E2E30) and Agiorgitiko (03E40 and 41E47) were vinified under the same protocol for the white wines and common for the red wines in 2018 and 2019. The resulting products were studied for several enological parameters such as alcohol content, volatile acidity, pH, total phenolics, anthocyanins and tannins for the red wines, as well as browning tests for the white wines. The aroma profile of these ten samples was investigated through sensory analysis with intensity rating of individual attributes on a five-point scale by a trained panel.