GiESCO 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 GiESCO 9 Impact of moderate water deficit on grape quality potential on Pinot Noir in Champagne (France)

Impact of moderate water deficit on grape quality potential on Pinot Noir in Champagne (France)


Context and purpose of the study – Environmental factors like soil and climate influence grape quality potential. Their impact is often mediated through vine water and nitrogen status. Depending on the color of the grapes (red or white) and the type of wine produced, the desired level of vine water and nitrogen status for optimum wine quality is different. Little investigation has been carried out concerning these factors and their potential influence on sparkling wine quality on two vintages. In this study vine water and nitrogen status were assessed at a very high density and related to grape composition and berry weight. Through statistical analyses, the major factors driving grape quality potential on Pinot noir in Champagne were highlighted.

Material and methods – High quality Champagne potential was related to particular grape composition. On 25 hectares planted with Pinot noir, grape samples were taken following a very high density grid (10 samples / ha). One sample is composed of 200 berries taken on 10 vines. On these samples, vine water status was assessed by measuring δ13C in grape juice and vine nitrogen status by measuring NH4+ in must. Berry weight, grape sugar, total acidity, malate and pH were also measured. Berry weight was recorded at each sampling location while yield was measured at a lower spatial resolution (the parcel level). These measures have been carried out on two vintages (2017 and 2018) and on 4 locations known to produce different quality levels of Champagne.

Results – Quality level of Champagne was positively related to technological maturity of Pinot noir. Following, malate and sugar/total acidity ratio (S/TA) were considered as a proxy for grape quality potential. A vintage effect was highlighted, the higher level of water deficit in 2018 increased the level of maturity compared to 2017. There is also a location effect, Tauxières Nord and Sud have a lower level of maturity even if Tauxières Sud is more constraint in 2018 than the other locations.
Water deficit plays an important role on maturity of Pinot noir in our study with a strong significant relation with malate and a significant link more or less important depending on vintage with pH, S/TA ratio and berry weight.
The effect of vine nitrogen status on maturity is more complex with no clear correlations during the vintages studied.
Berry weight is positively correlated to water deficit (δ13C) in a dry vintage (2018) and to vine nitrogen status (must NH4+) in a vintage characterized by lower water deficit (2017). A yield effect has been identified particular on S/TA ratio.
When Pinot noir vines face water deficits in Champagne, maturity is improved. It should be noted that due to capillary water movements in the limestone soils, water deficits are rarely severe. In our study water deficits ranged from non-existent to moderate. Water deficit improved grape quality potential for sparkling wines produced from Pinot noir in this study. More investigations are needed to confirm these results in other vintages and on a wider range of soil types.


Publication date: September 29, 2023

Issue: GiESCO 2019

Type: Poster


Laure de RESSEGUIER1*, Elisa MARGUERIT1, Jean-Philippe ROBY1, Bérangère FIERFORT-CAQUÉ2, Gaël VUILLE2, Denis BUNNER2, Cornelis VAN LEEUWEN1

1 EGFV, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux, ISVV, 33882 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2 Champagne Bollinger, 20 Boulevard Maréchal de Lattre de Tassigny, 51160 Aÿ-Champagne, France

Contact the author


grapevine, sparkling wine, Champagne, quality potential, water deficit, grape composition


GiESCO | GiESCO 2019 | IVES Conference Series


Related articles…

Influence of grapevine rootstock/scion combination on rhizosphere and root endophytic microbiomes

Soil is a reservoir of microorganisms playing important roles in biogeochemical cycles and interacting with plants whether in the rhizosphere or in the root endosphere. The composition of the microbial communities thus impacts the plant health. Rhizodeposits (such as sugar, organic and amino acids, secondary metabolites, dead root cells …) are released by the roots and influence the communities of rhizospheric microorganisms, acting as signaling compounds or carbon sources for microbes. The composition of root exudates varies depending on several factors including genotypes. As most of the cultivated grapevines worldwide are grafted plants, the aim of this study was to explore the influence of rootstock and scion genotypes on the microbial communities of the rhizosphere and the root endosphere. The work was conducted in the GreffAdapt plot (55 rootstocks x 5 scions), in which the 275 combinations have been planted into 3 blocks designed according to the soil resistivity. Samples of roots and rhizosphere of 10 scion x rootstock combinations were first collected in May among the blocks 2 and 3. The quantities of bacteria, fungi and archaea have been assessed in the rhizosphere by quantitative PCR, and by cultivable methods for bacteria and fungi. The communities of bacteria, fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was analyzed by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, ITS and 28S rRNA gene, respectively. The level of mycorrhization was also evaluated using black ink coloration of newly formed roots harvested in October. The level of bacteria, fungi and archaea was dependent on rootstock and scion genotypes. A block effect was observed, suggesting that the soil characteristics strongly influenced the microorganisms from the rhizosphere and root endosphere. High-throughput sequencing of the different target genes showed different communities of bacteria, fungi and AMF associated with the scion x rootstock combinations. Finally, all the combinations were naturally mycorrhized. The root mycorrhization intensity was influenced by the rootstock genotype, but not by the scion one. Altogether, these results suggest that both rootstock and scion genotypes influence the rhizosphere and root endophytic microbiomes. It would be interesting to analyze the biochemical composition of the rhizodeposition of these genotypes for a better understanding of the processes involved in the modulation of these microbiomes. Moreover, crossing our data with the plant agronomic characteristics could provide insights into their roles on plant fitness.

Terroir e DOC: riflessi produttivi e commercial

Da dove scaturisce tutto l’interesse attuale per il terroir? Si provi, per dare risposta a questo quesito, ad immaginare il vino avulso dalla sua dimensione territoriale. Cosa si otterrebbe? Un vino bianco, un vino rosso o quant’altro, ma comunque un prodotto privo di conno­tazione geografica, di premesse storiche, di radici tradizionali, di potere evocativo, di iden­tità e di personalità.

Regionality in Australian Shiraz: Sensory profiles of wines from six regions and their associations with chemical, geographical and climatic elements

Aim: Regional characters relating to Shiraz in Australia are not well documented. This study aimed to characterize the sensory, chemical and climate profiles of wines from various Australian Shiraz producing regions. 


Nowadays, the trend is to reduce the use of chemical inputs in the food sector, including in oenology. One of the inputs widely used in the wine making process are sulfites, for its several properties: antimicrobial and antioxidiant. This use isn’t without consequences on consumer’s health and environment, it can lead for example to allergic reactions and pollution. To limit the addition of chemical inputs, microbial alternatives are used. It consists to inoculate in grape must, a micro-organism able to inhibit the growth of the negative indigenous flora during the phase before the fermentation and to guarantee the sensory qualities of wines.

Sensorial characteristic of single variety red wines from four local variants of Tempranillo

It is well-known that there is a relationship between the “terroir” and the characteristics of grapes and quality of wines. However, adequate grape variety and other cultural factors should be also taken into account