OENO IVAS 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 OENO IVAS 9 OENO IVAS 2019 9 Analysis and composition of grapes, wines, wine spirits 9 Hplc-ms analysis of carotenoids as potential precursors for 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN) in riesling grapes

Hplc-ms analysis of carotenoids as potential precursors for 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN) in riesling grapes


In recent years, an undesirable premature “aged” character has been noticed in a growing number of young Riesling wines, associated with extreme weather conditions leading to increased radiation intensity and/ or sun exposure of grapes. One of the compounds responsible for rapid aging is 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN), a grape derived C13-norisoprenoid formed as biodegradation product of carotenoids that participate in light harvesting and are essential for photoprotection against excess light in the blue and green wavelength region (350–550 nm). 

Our interest in carotenoids as aroma precursors led us to examine the effect of qualitative light manipulation in the vineyard by coloured shade cloth (green, red and black) on carotenoid profile and accumulation in grapes during the ripening season. Through wavelength modulation of the radiation reaching the vines and therefore regulate the key absorbance maxima of the carotenoids, it was possible to reduce TDN concentrations in finished wines. 

This presentation describes HPLC-MS analysis of carotenoids in grapes and will focus on selected carotenoids potentially associated with the formation of TDN.


Publication date: June 10, 2020

Issue: OENO IVAS 2019

Type: Article


Yevgeniya Grebneva, Josh Hixson, Kathrin Vollmer, Cory Black, Markus Herderich

The Australian Wine Research Institute PO Box 197 Glen Osmond SA 5064, Australia

Contact the author


Carotenoids, TDN, Riesling, HPLC-MS 


IVES Conference Series | OENO IVAS 2019


Related articles…

Proteomic and activity characterization of exocellular laccases from three Botrytis cinerea strains

Botrytis cinerea is a fungus that causes common infection in grapes and other fruits. In winemaking, its presence can be both considered desirable in the case of noble rot infection or undesirable when grey rot is developed. This fungus produces an extracellular enzyme known as laccase which is able to cause oxidation of phenolic compounds present in must and wine, causing most of the times a decrease in its quality and problems during the winemaking process [1]. Material and methods: Three B. cinerea strains (B0510, VA612 and RM344) were selected and grown in a liquid medium adapted from one previously described [2]. The enzyme was isolated by tangential ultrafiltration of the culture medium using a QuixStand system equipped with a 30 KDa filtration membrane.

Non Saccharomyces wine yeasts: emerging trends and challenges in winemaking

In the past, the contribution of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking has always been considered negative for their limited enological attitude if compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In recent decades there has been a reevaluation of the role of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts especially when used in combination and in support with S. cerevisiae (mixed fermentation). In this regard, selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts could be profitable used to give distinctive features, to enhance flavor and aroma complexity and to reduce the ethanol content of wines. Further emerging trends in the use of these yeasts are related to their role as bioprotectants and producers of health promoters compounds.

Research on the origin and the side effects of chitosan stabilizing properties in wine

Fungal chitosan is a polysaccharide made up of glucosamine and N-acetyl-glucosamine and derived from chitin-glucan of Aspergillus niger or Agaricus bisporus. Fungal chitosan has been authorized as an antiseptic agent in wine since 2009 (OIV) and in organic wine in 2018. At the maximum dose of 10g/hl, it was shown to eliminate Brettanomyces bruxellensis, the main spoilage agent in red wines. Fungal chitosan is highly renewable, biocompatible (ADI equivalent to sucrose) and non-allergenic. However, winemakers often prefer to use sulfites (SO2), though sulfites are classified as priority food allergens, than chitosan. Indeed, many conflicting reports exist regarding its efficiency and its side effects towards beneficial wine microorganisms or wine taste. These contradictions could be explained by the heterogeneity of the fungal chitosan lots traded, the diversity of the wines (chemical composition, winemaking process), but also, by the recently highlighted huge genetic diversity prevailing in wine microbial species.

Teasing apart terroir: the influence of management style on native yeast communities within Oregon wineries and vineyards

Newer sequencing technologies have allowed for the addition of microbes to the story of terroir. The same environmental factors that influence the phenotypic expression of a crop also shape the composition of the microbial communities found on that crop. For fermented goods, such as wine, that microbial community ultimately influences the organoleptic properties of the final product that is delivered to customers. Recent studies have begun to study the biogeography of wine-associated microbes within different growing regions, finding that communities are distinct across landscapes. Despite this new knowledge, there are still many questions about what factors drive these differences. Our goal was to quantify differences in yeast communities due to management style between seven pairs of conventional and biodynamic vineyards (14 in total) throughout Oregon, USA. We wanted to answer the following questions: 1) are yeast communities distinct between biodynamic vineyards and conventional vineyards? 2) are these differences consistent across a large geographic region? 3) can differences in yeast communities be tied to differences in metabolite profiles of the bottled wine? To collect our data we took soil, bark, leaf, and grape samples from within each vineyard from five different vines of pinot noir. We also collected must and a 10º brix sample from each winery. Using these samples, we performed 18S amplicon sequencing to identify the yeast present. We then used metabolomics to characterize the organoleptic compounds present in the bottled wine from the blocks the year that we sampled. We are actively in the process of analysing our data from this study.

The sensitivity to ABA affects the cross-talk between scion/rootstock in tolerant grapevines to drought stress

Drought caused by climate change has a dramatic incidence on the vineyard. Despite employing specific rootstocks tolerant to drought like 110 Richter, the vineyard continues to experience various losses, revealing the importance of the scion cultivar in the adaptation to drought stress. In this regard, Merlot, a widely cultivated grapevine, exhibited reduced drought tolerance compared to less cultivated varieties like Callet, a local cultivar originating from the Balearic Islands that demonstrated greater resilience to drought. Therefore, understanding the drought stress response in both cultivars and the cross-talk between scion and rootstock is key to unveiling possible differences that could affect to the adaptation to drought in vineyard.