OENO IVAS 2019 banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 OENO IVAS 9 OENO IVAS 2019 9 Analysis and composition of grapes, wines, wine spirits 9 Aroma characterization of aged cognac spirits: contribution of volatile terpenoid compounds

Aroma characterization of aged cognac spirits: contribution of volatile terpenoid compounds

Abstract

Cognac spirit aromas result from the presence of a wide variety of volatile odorous compounds associated with the modalities of distilled spirit elaboration and during aging. Indeed, these odorous compounds play an essential role in the finesse and complexity of the aged Cognac. However, very few studies have been done on this subject especially regarding to aging notes with exotic wood (sandalwood) and balsamic descriptors. The aim of this work is to improve knowledge of these aromatic nuances.  

To answer this question, a sensory-guided approach was used after selection by an expert panel of aged Cognac spirits. After solvent extraction, HPLC fractionation was used in order to evidence fractions of interest recalling specific aromatic nuances of aged Cognac. Doing so, it was possible to select some HPLC fractions presenting interesting notes of aged Cognac and recalling particularly exotic wood and balsamic descriptors. Their contribution was demonstrated by reconstitution and omission tests with all HPLC fractions. 

 Then the GC-O/MS analysis of the selected fractions allowed to detect odorous zones and identify associated compounds. First, various well known compounds representative of terpenoids family were highlighted as geraniol, α-terpinene, nerol, α-terpineol, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) and particularly piperitone which was not cited in Cognac. These compounds were quantified and their detection thresholds were carried out. 

An insight of their evolution during aging shown that geraniol, α-terpinene, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole concentrations increased while spirit were more aged, while nerol tend to decrease. However aging had no impact on piperitone. The impact of wine distillation with lees was also particularly considered and the quantification of these compounds showed an impact of this parameter of the elaboration process. 

 The organoleptic impact of 1,8-cineole was highlighted in Cognac at concentration over its detection threshold. While continuing the GC-O analysis and its coupling to mass spectrometry, aroma nuances of sandalwood, were particularly noticeable. Thus, other molecules were identified through the sensory-guided method. They were santalol with sandalwood nuances and α-campholenal with tea and sandalwood nuances, both of which were related to sandalwood, respectively a sesquiterpene and a monoterpene. These new identifications thus open up a large field of investigation concerning the terpenoids family and their sensory impact within the aged Cognac matrix.

DOI:

Publication date: June 11, 2020

Issue: OENO IVAS 2019

Type: Article

Authors

Fannie Thibaud, Marie Courregelongue, Philippe Darriet

Unitéde recherche Oenologie, EA 4577, USC 1366 INRA, ISVV, Universitéde Bordeaux, Bordeaux INP, F33882 Villenave d’Ornon France

Contact the author

Keywords

Cognac, aroma, terpene, gas chromatography 

Tags

IVES Conference Series | OENO IVAS 2019

Citation

Related articles…

Physiological responses of crimson seedless (Vitis vinifera) grapevines to altered micro climatic conditions and different water treatments in the Breede River Valley of South Africa

Challenging conditions created by limited water supply and changes in the climate require an understanding of the physiological status of table grapes along the whole value chain. This is critical to develop tools for regulatory management of growth balances and grape quality. This study aimed to determine the impact of different amounts of water and an altered micro-climate (complete covering of vineyards with plastic) on the physiological reaction of the grapevine during the growth season.

Viticultural zoning in D.O.C. Ribeiro (Galicia, NW Spain)

L’AOC Ribeiro est la plus ancienne de Galice (NO de l’Espagne), avec une aire de production potentielle de 3.200 ha. Situé dans la région centrale de la vallée du Miño, le Ribeiro a un climat de tipe maritime tempéré qui se correspond avec la zone climatique II de Winkler.

Évolution de la surmaturation du cépage Chenin dans différents terroirs des Coteaux du Layon en relation avec les variables agroviticoles

The French “Coteaux du Layon” Appellation of Origin has built its Jarne on the production of sweet white wines. A network of experimental plots, based on the “terroir” concept, was established in 1990; it allows for the follow-up of the overripening behaviour of the grapes in relation with the agroviticultural parameters.

RED WINE AGING THROUGH 1H-NMR METABOLOMICS

Premium red wines are often aged in oak barrel. This widespread winemaking process is used, among others, to provide roundness and complexity to the wine. The study of wine evolution during barrel aging is crucial to better ensure control of wine quality.
¹H-NMR has already been proved to be an efficient tool to monitor winemaking process [1]. Indeed, it is a non-destructive technique, it requires a small amount of sample and a short time of analysis, yet it provides clues about several chemical families.

Climatic groups in Ibero-America viticulture compared to worldwide wine producer regions

The wine production is an important activity in many Ibero-American countries. The wine producer regions of these countries configure a large use of different climate types and viticultural climates.