terclim by ICS banner
IVES 9 IVES Conference Series 9 LARGE-SCALE PHENOTYPIC SCREENING OF THE SPOILAGE YEAST BRETTANOMYCES BRUXELLENSIS: UNTANGLING PATTERNS OF ADAPTATION AND SELECTION, AND CONSEQUENCES FOR INNOVATIVE WINE TREATMENTS

LARGE-SCALE PHENOTYPIC SCREENING OF THE SPOILAGE YEAST BRETTANOMYCES BRUXELLENSIS: UNTANGLING PATTERNS OF ADAPTATION AND SELECTION, AND CONSEQUENCES FOR INNOVATIVE WINE TREATMENTS

Abstract

Brettanomyces bruxellensis is considered as the main spoilage yeast in oenology. Its presence in red wine leads to off-flavour due to the production of volatile phenols such as 4-vinylphenol, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, whose aromatic notes are unpleasant (e.g. animal, leather, horse or pharmaceutical). Beside wine, B. bruxellensis is commonly isolated from beer, kombucha and bioethanol production, where its role can be described as negative or positive. Recent genomic studies unveiled the existence of various populations. These genetic groups differ from each other by their ploidy level (diploid or triploid), their hybridization status (auto or- allo-triploid) and their ecological fermentation niches (wine, beer, tequila/bioethanol, etc.). While the genomic landscape of B. bruxellensis is nowadays clearer, its phenotypic diversity is still insufficiently assessed in the light of its genetic diversity. In this work, on one hand, we designed an experiment where 151 B. bruxellensis strains representative of the genetic diversity of the species were phenotypically characterized in five natural beverages (grape must, wine, wort, beer, kombucha wort). Various phenotypic traits were monitored: parameters of growth and fermentation ability, metabolites of technological interest… Signatures of local adaptation were investigated and showed that at least one allotriploid population of B. bruxellensis is specifically adapted to wine environment. Moreover, such large screening allowed the identification of ancestral traits like maltose and maltotriose consumption or nitrate metabolization that were randomly lost in specific populations, an evolutionary phenomenon called relaxed selection. On a second hand, two innovative control methods, continuous UV-C light and pulsed light, were tested on a large collection of B. bruxellensis (>100 strains) and other wine yeast species (14 species). These two stabilization treatments were deemed as particularly efficient on wine yeast spoilers (B. bruxellensis including) using i- a drop-platted system to screen various strains and conditions, and ii- lab-made reactors to stabilize several litters of red wines. Altogether, our results contribute to a deeper understanding of the wine spoiler B. bruxellensis both at the fundamental and applied levels.

 

1. Avramova, M., Cibrario, A., Peltier, E., Coton, M., Coton, E., Schacherer, J., Spano, G., Capozzi, V., Blaiotta, G., Salin, F., Dols-Lafargue, M., Grbin, P., Curtin, C., Albertin, W., Masneuf-Pomarede, I., 2018. Brettanomyces bruxellensis population survey reveals a diploid-triploid complex structured according to substrate of isolation and geographical distribution. Sci. Rep. 8, 4136. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22580-7
2. Eberlein, C., Abou Saada, O., Friedrich, A., Albertin, W., Schacherer, J., 2021. Different trajectories of polyploidization shape the genomic landscape of the Brettanomyces bruxellensis yeast species. Genome Res. 31, 2316–2326. https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.275380.121
3. Harrouard, J., Eberlein, C., Ballestra, P., Dols‐Lafargue, M., Masneuf-Pomarede, I., Miot-Sertier, C., Schacherer, J., Albertin, W., Ropars, J., 2022. Brettanomyces bruxellensis : Overview of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of an anthropized yeast. Mol. Ecol. 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.16439
4. Pilard, E., Harrouard, J., Miot-Sertier, C., Marullo, P., Albertin, W., Ghidossi, R., 2021. Wine yeast species show strong inter- and intra-specific variability in their sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation. Food Microbiol. 100, 103864. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.fm.2021.103864
5. Harrouard, J., Pilard, E., Miot-Sertier, C., Marullo, P., Ferrari, G., Pataro, G., Ghidossi, R., Albertin, W., 2022. Evaluating the Influence of Operational Parameters of Pulsed Light on Wine Related Yeasts: Focus on Inter- and Intra-Specific Variability Sensitivity. SSRN Electron. J. 109. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4053457

DOI:

Publication date: February 9, 2024

Issue: OENO Macrowine 2023

Type: Article

Authors

Jules Harrouard1, Etienne Pilard1, Emilien Peltier1,2, Cecile Miot-Sertier1, Marguerite Dols-Lafargue1,2, Isabelle Masneuf-Pomare-de1,3, Alexandre Pons1,4, Philippe Marullo1,5, Joseph Schacherer6,7, Remy Ghidossi1, Warren Albertin1,2

1. UMR 1366 OENOLOGIE, Univ. Bordeaux, INRAE, Bordeaux INP, Bordeaux Sciences Agro, Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, 33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2. ENSCBP, Bordeaux INP, 33600, Pessac, France
3. BSA, 33170 Gradignan
4. Tonnellerie Seguin Moreau, Cognac France, France
5. Biolaffort, 11 Rue Aristide Bergès, F-33270 Floirac, France.
6. Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, GMGM, UMR 7156, Strasbourg, France
7. Institut Universitaire de France (IUF), Paris, France

Contact the author*

Keywords

comparative phenotyping, local adaptation, UVC, Pulsed light

Tags

IVES Conference Series | oeno macrowine 2023 | oeno-macrowine

Citation

Related articles…

‘TROPICAL’ POLYFUNCTIONAL THIOLS AND THEIR ROLE IN AUSTRALIAN RED WINES

Following anecdotal evidence of unwanted ‘tropical’ character in red wines resulting from vineyard interventions and a subsequent yeast trial observing higher ‘red fruit’ character correlated with higher thiol concentrations, the role of polyfunctional thiols in commercial Australian red wines was investigated.
First, trials into the known tropical thiol modulation technique of foliar applications of sulfur and urea were conducted in parallel on Chardonnay and Shiraz.1 The Chardonnay wines showed expected results with elevated concentrations of 3-sulfanylhexanol (3-SH) and 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3-SHA), whereas the Shiraz wines lacked 3-SHA. Furthermore, the Shiraz wines were described as ‘drain’ (known as ‘reductive’ aroma character) during sensory evaluation although they did not contain thiols traditionally associated with ‘reductive’ thiols (H2S, methanethiol etc.).

EVALUATION OF INDIGENOUS CANADIAN YEAST STRAINS AS WINE STARTER CULTURES ON PILOT SCALE FERMENTATIONS

The interactions between geographical and biotic factors, along with the winemaking process, influence the composition and sensorial characteristics of wine¹. In addition to the primary end products of alcoholic fermentation, many secondary metabolites contribute to wine flavor and aroma and their production depends predominantly on the yeast strain carrying out the fermentation. Commercially available strains of S. cerevisiae help improve the reproducibility and predictability of wine quality. However, most commercial wine strains available on the market have been isolated from Europe, are genetically similar, and may not be the ideal strain to reflect the terroir of Canadian vineyards².

FLAVONOID POTENTIAL OF MINORITY RED GRAPE VARIETIES

The alteration in the rainfall pattern and the increase in the temperatures associated to global climate change are already affecting wine production in many viticultural regions all around the world (1). In fact, grapes are nowadays ripening earlier from a technological point of view than in the past, but they are not necessarily mature from a phenolic point of view. Consequently, the wines made from these grapes can be unbalanced or show high alcohol content. Dramatic shifts in viticultural areas are currently being projected for the future (2).

IMPACT OF THE WINES’ QUALITY ON THE WINE DISTILLATES’ ORGANOLEPTIC PROFILE

Brandy de Jerez (BJ) is a spirit drink made exclusively from spirits and wine distillates and is characterized by the use of casks for aging that previously contained Sherries. The quality and sensory complexity of BJ depend on the raw materials and some factors: grape variety, conditions during processing the wine and its distillation, as well as the aging in the cask. Therefore, the original compounds of the grapes from which it comes are of great interest (1 y 2) being in most cases the Airén variety. Their relationship with the quality of the musts and the wines obtained from them has been studied (3) and varies each year of harvest depending on the weather conditions (4).

INVESTIGATION OF MALIC ACID METABOLIC PATHWAYS DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION USING GC-MS, LC-MS, AND NMR DERIVED 13C-LABELED DATA

Malic acid has a strong impact on wine pH and the contribution of fermenting yeasts to modulate its concentration has been intensively investigated in the past. Recent advances in yeast genetics have shed light on the unexpected property of some strains to produce large amounts of malic acid (“acidic strains”) while most of the wine starters consume it during the alcoholic fermentation. Being a key metabolite of the central carbohydrate metabolism, malic acid participates to TCA and glyoxylate cycles as well as neoglucogenesis. Although present at important concentrations in grape juice, the metabolic fate of malic acid has been poorly investigated.